Cara Budidaya Jamur Tiram Langkah Demi Langkah

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Budidaya jamur tiram sangat cocok untuk iklim tropis seperti Indonesia. Investasi diperlukan untuk memulai usaha budidaya jamur tiram cukup murah dan dilakukan secara bertahap. Bagian tersulit adalah membuat baglog, penanaman media yang telah diinokulaikan dengan bibit jamur.

Nama latin jamur tiram Pleurotus ostreatus, termasuk dalam grup Basidiomycota. Disebut jamur tiram karena bentuk kepala menyerupai kulit tiram. Putih berbentuk setengah lingkaran. Dalam jamur tiram liar, putih yang sering ditemukan di batang-batang kayu yang sudah usang. Mungkin karena itu, jamur tiram sering disebut jamur kayu.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [http://peritonealmesotheliomatreatment.com/] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [http://mesotheliomatreatmentnews.com/] Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Lan_Sipenyair/912820 Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6234654

Jamur tiram ini dapat tumbuh dan berkembang di media serbuk yang dikemas dalam kantong plastik. Dan pertumbuhan jamur tiram sangat dipengaruhi oleh kondisi lingkungan sekitarnya. Oleh karena itu, kita perlu mengetahui tentang kondisi yang cocok untuk pertumbuhan sebelum kita melakukan budidaya jamur tiram.

Seputar budidaya jamur tiram putih


Kehidupan jamur ini secara alami tumbuh di hutan dan biasanya tumbuh di bawah pohon yang berdaun lebar atau di bawah tanaman kayu. Pleurotus jamur tidak memerlukan banyak sinar matahari. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa miselium yang disimpan dalam kondisi redup, lebih dari jumlah tempat dengan terang sinar matahari penuh. Miselium adalah jaringan yang meliputi koleksi Hifa jamur. Miselium dapat tumbuh di dinding sel dari kayu dengan menembus dinding sel kayu melalui lubang.

Proses penetrasi kayu dinding sel enzim pemutus terbantu oleh selulosa, hemiselulosa dan dan lignin yang dihasilkan oleh jamur dari ujung miselium. Enzim mencerna senyawa bersamaan menggunakan kayu sebagai sumber makanan.

Temperatur suhu

Jamur tiram putih miselium serat tumbuh dengan baik di kisaran suhu 23-28 °C, yang berarti bahwa kisaran suhu normal untuk pertumbuhan. Walaupun dengan suhu dibawah 23 ° C, miselium jamur masih dapat tumbuh meskipun lambat. Sementara itu, membutuhkan lebih banyak waktu untuk pertumbuhan jamur yang membentuk seperti kerang tiram. Kira-kira membutuhkan suhu berkisar antara 13-15 ° C selama 2 sampai 3 hari.

Ketika suhu rendah suhu tidak dicapai, maka ada dua kemungkinan terjadi, yaitu pertumbuhan jamur tidak akan terbentuk, yang berarti bahwa perawatan tidak berhasil, atau bahkan waktu yang dibutuhkan akan jadi lebih lama. Tapi tahap kedua jamur tiram putih tetap dapat tumbuh pada kisaran suhu 12-37,8 ° c.


Kandungan air sangat mempengaruhi pertumbuhan dan perkembangan miselium jamur. Terlalu sedikit air akan mengakibatkan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan terganggu, bahkan gagal.

Namun, jika terlalu banyak air, miselium akan membusuk dan mati. Mengurangi kandungan air pada tanaman akan diperoleh ketika penyiraman. Jamur tumbuh dengan baik dalam kondisi lembab, tetapi tidak dalam genangan. Miselium tumbuh secara optimal pada kandungan kelembaban yang rendah sekitar 60%. Untuk merangsang pertumbuhan tunas dan tubuh buah, diperlukan kelembaban sekitar70-85%.


Miselium jamur tiram putih dapat tumbuh secara optimal dalam gelap. Sebaliknya, tubuh buah jamur tidak dapat tumbuh dalam gelap. Cahaya diperlukan untuk merangsang pertumbuhan. Dan batang jamur akan tumbuh lebih kecil dan kepala jamur tumbuh tidak normal jika pertumbuhan saat primordial tidak mendapatkan cukup air. Namun, melalui sinar matahari langsung dapat merusak dan menyebabkan layu, serta ukuran relatif kecil.


Jamur tiram putih adalah tanaman yang memerlukan oksigen sebangai senyawa untuk pertumbuhan. Sirkulasi udara yang lancar akan menjamin pasokan oksigen. Keterbatasan pasokan oksigen di dalam udara sekitar tempat tumbuh jamur dapat mengganggu pertumbuhan tubuh buah.

Jamur tiram yang tumbuh di tempat kekurangan oksigen memiliki tubuh kecil dan abnormal. Tubuh buah jamur yang tumbuh di tempat yang kurang oksisgen dapat dengan mudah layu dan mati. Selain itu Jamur tiram juga memerlukan sirkulasi udara segar untuk pertumbuhannya.

Pertumbuhan miselium jamur membutuhkan kandungan karbon dioksida tinggi, yaitu 15% – 20%. Namun, jamur tiram yang tumbuh di tempat yang mengandung karbo dioksida terlalu tinggi juga dapat memiliki tubuh buah abnormal. Biasanya,topi jamur tiram relatif tumbuh lebih kecil daripada batangnya.

Derajat keasaman (pH)

Miselium jamur tiram putih tumbuh secara optimal pada pH sedikit asam, yaitu antara 5.0-6.5. PH menengah diperlukan untuk produksi metabolisme jamur tiram putih, seperti produksi asam organik.

Asam dapat menyebabkan pertumbuhan miselium terganggu, jamur tiram yang terganggu dapat mengkontaminasi jamur lain, bahkan menyebabkan kematian jamur tiram putih. PH terlalu tinggi pun dapat menyebabkan sistem metabolisme jamur tiram putih tidak efektif. Pada kenyataannya, hal inilah penyebab kematian jamur. Oleh karena itu Jamur tiram dapat tumbuh secara optimal pada pH mendekati normal (pH dalam 6,8-7.0).

Persiapan budidaya jamur tiram

Dalam budidaya modern, media tumbuh yang digunakan adalah dalam bentuk kayu tiruan (log) yang dibuat dalam bentuk silinder. Komposisi medium ini adalah sumber kayu (gergaji kayu, sekam gula tebu), gula (tepung terigu Staples), kapur, pupuk P, dan air.

Kebutuhan gizi jamur tiram

Pertumbuhan yang optimum dapat dicapai dengan lingkungan yang tepat dan tersedia nutrisi yang cukup. Sel-sel protoplas perlu nitrogen, fosfor, dan nutrisi lainnya. Selain karbon yang diperlukan untuk pembentukan protoplast, juga diperlukan sebagai sumber energi. Sehingga dibutuhkan lebih banyak karbon dibandingkan nitrogen. Nitrogen diperlukan untuk pembentukan asam nukleat. Sedangkan protein dan kitin yang diperlukan untuk pembentukan dinding sel jamur.

Adanya mikroorganisme lainnya

Tempat berkembangnya adalah sumber energi untuk jamur tiram. Adanya mikroorganisme lain dapat menyebabkan persaingan dalam mendapatkan nutrisi sehingga jamur tidak dapat tumbuh dengan optimal sesuai harapan. Pada kenyataannya, sebagian besar mikroorganisme tersebut dapat mengeluarkan senyawa toksin terhadap organisme hidup di sekitarnya. Sterilisasi media adalah cara yang efektif untuk membersihkan media tanam dari keberadaan benda asing di media tanam yang tak terduga.

Mengatur baglog


Baglog merupakan benih tempat menaruh jamur tiram sebagai media tanam. Bahan utama baglog adalah serbuk gergaji, karena jamur tiram termasuk jamur kayu. Baglog silinder dibungkus plastik, dimana salah satu ujung diberikan sebuah lubang. Pada lubang itulah jamur tiram akan tumbuh dengan menusuk keluar.

Dan budidaya jamur tiram pada skala besar, biasanya petani jamur membuat baglog mereka sendiri. Tetapi untuk pemula, atau petani dengan modal terbatas biasanya baglog dibeli dari pihak lain. Jadi petani bisa fokus menjalankan budidaya.

Ada dua cara untuk mengkompilasi baglog di rak, yang diletakkan secara vertical, lubang baglog menghadap ke atas. Dan horizontal, lubang-lubang baglog menghadap ke sisi.

Dua cara ini memiliki keuntungan yang berbeda. Baglog diatur horizontal aman dari semprotan air. Ketika berlebihan penyiraman, air tidak akan masuk ke dalam baglog. Di samping itu, membuat panen lebih mudah. Namun, penyusunan membutuhkan lebih banyak ruang.

Sterilkan Baglog

Baglog steril dapat dilakukan dengan memasukkan baglog ke dalam autoclave atau pemanasl dengan suhu 121 derajat C selama 15 menit. Untuk mengganti penggunaan autoclave, dapat menggunakan drum berkapasitas besar dengan atau mampu menampung sekitar 50 baglog dan dipanaskan di kompor minyak. Selain itu juga dapat menggunakan oven. Memang, steriliasi baglog yang menggunakan drum memakan waktu, yang sekitar 8 jam, tetapi dianggap lebih hemat biaya.


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