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Contoh Cara Membuat Makalah Bahasa Indonesia Baik dan Benar

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Untuk Anda yang masihlah duduk di bangku sekolah atau perguruan tinggi kerapkali bakal memperoleh pekerjaan yang disediakan berbentuk makalah. Sedang sangat banyak susunan atau kerangka yang mengedar di masyarakat saat ini masihlah salah atau tepatnya masihlah belum sempurna.

Ada satu susunan standar dengan elemen-elemen suatu makalah yang perlu ditaati. Sedang waktu kita masihlah duduk di bangku SD/SMP susunan elemen ini masih ditolerir oleh beberapa Guru, tetapi tidak untuk beberapa Dosen di Perguruan Tinggi. Waktu Anda di bangku perkuliahan, Anda bakal dituntut membuat satu makalah atau karya ilmiah dengan susunan yang sempurna. B

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [http://peritonealmesotheliomatreatment.com/] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [http://mesotheliomatreatmentnews.com/] Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Lan_Sipenyair/912820 Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6234654

aik dari urutan kerangka kajian, tata bahasa, format halaman, format gambar, format tabel serta ada banyak lagi ketentuan baku yang membuat makalah jadi satu hasil karya ilmiah yang baik serta benar.

Pertanyaannya yaitu ” Bagaimana membuat makalah yang baik serta benar? “. Kami membuat artikel ini untuk mempermudah Anda mengerti langkah membuat satu makalah yang baik serta sesuai dengan penyusunan Badan Standardisasi Nasional (BSN) Indonesia.


Pengertian Makalah


contoh makalah

Menurut Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, makalah disimpulkan dalam dua hal. Yang pertama yaitu tulisan resmi mengenai satu pokok yang ditujukan untuk dibacakan di depan umum di suatu persidangan serta yang kerap disusun untuk diterbitkan. Yang kedua didefinisikan sebagai karya tulis pelajar atau mahasiswa sebagai laporan hasil proses pekerjaan sekolah atau perguruan tinggi.

Bila kita mau melihat lebih dalam makna makalah berdasar sebagian pakar maka akan ada makin banyak pengertian. W. J. S Poerwadarminta pada tahun 1994 mengartikan makalah sebagai uraian tercatat yang mengulas satu permasalahan spesifik yang dikemukakan untuk memperoleh kajian selanjutnya. Tanjung serta Ardial juga mengartikan makalah yaitu karya tulis yang berisi pemikiran mengenai satu permasalahan atau tema spesifik yang ditulis dengan cara systematis serta diikuti riset yang logis serta objektif.

Sedang Badan Standarisasi Nasional (BSN) menulis kalau satu karya tulis dimaksud makalah bila memenuhi beberapa ketentuan berikut ; makalah adalah pemikiran sendiri, belum pernah dipublikasikan, mengandung unsur kekinian serta berbentuk ilmiah.

Ketidaksamaan Makalah, Paper serta Jurnal Ilmiah

Karakteristik suatu Makalah

  1. Makalah mengulas atau meneliti satu kajian literatur yang telah ada atau dari laporan proses aktivitas lapangan.
  2. Makalah biasanya di buat untuk dipresentasikan disuatu seminar, sidang, atau diskusi.
  3. Bagian pokok yang perlu ada pada makalah yaitu Pendahuluan, Isi, serta Rangkuman.

Karakteristik sebuah Paper

Paper berbentuk karya tulis ilmiah yang umum dipakai untuk mendokumentasikan satu riset yang baru. Tetapi tak menutup susunan paper juga dipakai untuk review riset yang telah ada. Terbagi dalam tiga bagian pokok yakni Topik, Data, serta Argumen.

Karakteristik sebuah Jurnal Ilmiah

  1. Jurnal Ilmiah berbentuk media himpunan karya ilmiah yang diterbitkan setiap kurun waktu tertentu.
  2. Saat sebelum di publikasikan, Jurnal Ilmiah mesti melalui sistem peer-review untuk menyeleksi serta memastikan apakah satu paper atau makalah yang di submit ke jurnal itu layak diterbitkan atau tidak. Sistem peer-review dikerjakan oleh satu atau lebih dari satu pemeriksa yang juga adalah pakar atau akademisi di sektor yang dikaji.

Kategori Makalah

Berdasar pada type kajian yang dibicarakan, Fauzy Ahmad mengkategorikan makalah jadi 3 type yaitu

  1. Makalah Deduktif yakni makalah yang didasarkan pada kajian teoritis yang relevan dengan persoalan yang dibahas
  2. Makalah Induktif yaitu makalah yang ditulis berdasar pada data empiris yang berbentuk objektif berdasar pada apa yang didapat dari lapangan namun masih tetap relevan dengan pembahasan
  3. Makalah Campuran yakni makalah yang disusun atau ditulis berdasar pada kajian toritis serta data empiris. berarti makalah campuran ini yaitu penggabungan pada makalah deduktif serta makalah induktif.

Pada makalah campuran bisa dibagi lagi jadi 6 type :

  1. Makalah Ilmiah – makalah ini umumnya mengulas persoalan yang ditulis dari hasil studi ilmiah serta type makalah ini tak berdasar pada pendapat atau opini dari penulis yang berbentuk subyektif
  2. Makalah Kerja – umumnya makalah ini didapat dari hasil satu riset serta sangat mungkin seseorang penulis makalah itu berargumentasi dari persoalan yang dibicarakan yang diperoleh dari satu sistem riset serta itu berarti opini yang berbentuk subyektif dari penulis lebih sangat mungkin pada makalah type ini
  3. Makalah Kajian – isi dari makalah ini umumnya sebagai fasilitas pemecahan satu permasalahan yang berbentuk kontroversial
  4. Makalah Posisi – istilah ini dipakai untuk karya tulis yang disusun atas keinginan satu pihak yang manfaatnya sebagai alternatif pemecahan permasalahan yang kontroversial. Prosedur kajian serta penulisannya dikerjakan dengan cara ilmiah
  5. Makalah Analisa – karakter dari makalah ini yaitu obyektif-empiris
  6. Makalah Respon – umumnya makalah ini kerap jadikan sebagai pekerjaan mata kuliah untuk mahasiswa yang berisi adalah reaksi pada satu bacaan

Baca juga: Contoh Notulen Rapat


Panduan Pembuatan Makalah


cara membuat makalah baik dan benar
IMAGE: (REN/UCEO)

Penentuan Topik

Topik yaitu tema pembuatan makalah. Topik dapatlah didapat dari uraian latar belakang permasalahan. Latar belakang yaitu sebab kenapa satu riset dikerjakan atau argumen makalah ditulis. Sedang tema akan nampak karena terdapatnya sebab pada latar belakang. Penentuan topik mesti menarik dan meliputi beragam kajian pengetahuan yang memasyarakat. Hal semacam ini dikerjakan dengan maksud supaya pembaca bisa mengambil faedah dari makalah itu sesuai dengan pengetahuan yang diperlukan. Topik yang umumnya dipakai dalam penulisan makalah diantaranya bergelut pada bagian akademis atau mata pelajaran dibangku sekolah seperti Sejarah, Agama, TIK, Kesehatan, Biologi, Geografi, Ekonomi, PKN, Fisika, serta Kewirausahaan.

Sebagai penambahan pertimbangan, Kusmarwanti, M. Pd merekomendasikan ada 4 hal yang perlu Anda sesuaikan dalam memastikan satu tema makalah.

  1. Kekuatan Anda dalam kuasai teori/kajian masalah
  2. Ketersedian bahan pendukung, rujukan serta literatur lain yang bisa Anda akses
  3. Kesan menarik serta unik dari tema Anda.
  4. Seberapa besar faedah dari makalah yang Anda terbitkan secara umum
  5. Penentuan Bahasa

Pemilihan Bahasa

Dalam penulisan satu makalah, butuh di perhatikan juga tentang penulisan dan bahasa yang dipakai. Makalah umumnya memakai bahasa baku atau sama sesuai ejaan yang disempurnakan.

Ketetapan penulisan makalah untuk cakupan internasional, mesti memakai Bahasa Inggris supaya bisa di terima juga dengan cara internasional. Tidak sama dengan penulisan untuk kelompok dalam negeri (Indonesia) mesti memakai Bahasa Indonesia yang baik serta benar sesuai dengan EYD yang berlaku sekarang ini. Butuh Anda kenali juga kalau EYD umumnya disempurnakan tiap-tiap satu tahun lebih.

Penentuan bahasa dan penulisan makalah yang baik serta benar bakal turut memastikan bobot kwalitas dari makalah yang Anda tulis. Jadi hal semacam ini juga penting untuk di perhatikan. Penentuan kata juga di rasa perlu supaya pembaca dapat mengerti dengan baik maksud yang mau Anda berikan dalam makalah. Hal semacam ini bakal menghindari dari peluang adanya salah tafsir atau minim pemahaman pada esensi makalah Anda.

Penentuan kata mesti dengan bahasa baku atau ilmiah dan pas tujuan, tak bertele-tele namun masih tetap informatif. Akan tambah baik jika tiap-tiap penjelasan yang Anda tulis dibarengi dengan contoh yang konkret hingga mempermudah pembaca untuk mendalaminya.Anda tulis disertai dengan contoh yang konkret sehingga memudahkan pembaca untuk memahaminya.


Susunan Kerangka Makalah


cara menulis makalah
IMAGE: (REN/UCEO)

Cover

Cover/Sampul makalah berisi judul makalah dan nama penulis, logo instansi/institusi, tempat serta tahun terbit. Nama penulis ditulis dengan terang, nama asli serta nama lengkap tanpa ada disingkat dan tanpa menyebutkan gelar. Alamat penulis berisi nama lembaga atau instansi tempat penulis bekerja atau meniti tahap studi (kampus). Th. terbit yaitu th. ketika makalah sudah usai riset serta penulisannya lalu diterbitkan untuk umum.

Judul pada halaman cover atau sampul memakai huruf kapital yang dibuat tebal dengan memakai type huruf Times New Roman dengan besar font sebesar 14, ditulis dengan penyusunan layout center (rata tengah). Untuk penulisan nama penulis serta tak dibutuhkan huruf kapital untuk semua kata, cukup huruf kapital dimuka kata. Tetapi untuk penulisan info nama lembaga atau tahap pendidikan memakai huruf kapital dengan dibuat tebal.

Judul yang ditampilkan mesti judul yang pasti, informatif, singkat tetapi menerangkan isi dari riset dalam makalah itu. Anda tak disarankan menuliskan judul makalah umpamanya “Laporan Riset Kajian Sosial di Masyarakat”, Anda mesti menerangkan lebih khusus pada judul Anda itu, yakni umpamanya “Pengaruh Budaya Patrilineal dalam kehidupan masyarakat Jawa” judul itu bakal memberitahukan pada pembaca, garis besar dari isi atau bahasan makalah Anda.

Abstrak

Abstrak ditulis dalam dua bahasa atau dua versi, yakni Bahasa Indonesia serta Bahasa Inggris. Untuk penulisan dalam Bahasa Indonesia Anda tak diijinkan menulis lebih dari 250 kata, sedang dalam Bahasa Inggris Anda tak diijinkan menulis lebih dari 200 kata. Abstrak bisa diisi ringkasan atau bahasan pokok dari makalah, maksud riset, cara riset, hipotesa, dan sedikit ikhtisar hasil yang didapat berdasar pada riset yang dikerjakan.

Bila Anda mau menerbitkan makalah Anda pada taraf internasional, maka Anda mesti menempatkan abstract pada halaman paling utama atau halaman awal sebelum abstrak dalam Indonesia. Demikian halnya bila mau menerbitkan makalah dengan tujuan utama taraf nasional, maka Anda mesti menulis abstrak dalam Bhs Indonesia pada halaman awal, baru selanjutnya abstract dalam Bhs Inggris pada halaman selanjutnya. Penulisan abstrak sesuaikan maksud serta tujuan Anda buat makalah Anda itu.

Kata kunci memakai Bhs Indonesia serta Bhs Inggris, yakni sesuaikan bhs yang dipakai pada abstrak. Bila abstrak dalam Bhs Indonesia, jadi keyword mesti dalam Bhs Indonesia. Demikian sebaliknya bila abstract memakai penulisan dalam Bhs Inggris, jadi keyword mesti dalam Bhs Inggris (kata kunci (keyword)). Keyword terdiri tak lebih dari 3 hingga 5 kata. Keyword diletakkan dibawah penulisan abstrak. Pada dasarnya, penulisan abstrak mesti sesuai dengan topik serta maksud penulisan makalah tersebut. Sedang keyword merangkum apa yang tercatat didalam abstrak dan makalah riset Anda.

Daftar Isi

Daftar isi berisi info halaman dari isi makalah. Tiap-tiap bab serta sub-bab dalam makalah diberikan info halaman supaya mempermudah pembaca temukan bahan yang bakal di baca. Daftar isi juga berisi daftar gambar serta daftar tabel (bila ada).

Contoh penulisan daftar isi :

Cover …………………………………………………………………………….……….. i

Abstrak ……………………………………………………………………………………… ii

Abstract ……..…………………………………………………………………….………… iii

Daftar Isi ……………………………………………………………………………………. iv

Kata Pengantar ……………………………………………………………………………. 1

I Pendahuluan ………………………………………………………..………….…..……. 2

I.I Latar Belakang ………………………………………………………..…………3

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