kasus pelanggaran ham

13 Pelanggaran HAM Berat di Indonesia & Kasus HAM Selama 2015

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Pelanggaran HAM

Pelanggaran HAM (Hak asasi Manusia) di Indonesia & dunia, misalnya di Indonesia banyak beberapa masalah pelanggaram HAM yang saat ini belum diusut hingga selesai, hal semacam ini jelas saja jadi perhatian kita untuk belajar dari histori tentang contoh-contoh masalah pelanggaran HAM, baik itu di Indonesia atau yang ada di beberapa negara supaya tak terulang.

Banyak Contoh Masalah Pelanggaran-Pelanggaran HAM, jadi pelajaran tidak untuk terulang lagi.  Dengan intensif kebijakan pemerintah dan juga ketegasannya melindungi Hak Asasi Manusia (HAM).

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [http://peritonealmesotheliomatreatment.com/] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [http://mesotheliomatreatmentnews.com/] Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Lan_Sipenyair/912820 Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6234654

Saat sebelum mengulas tentang contoh-contoh masalah pelanggaran HAM, tahukah anda tentang Pengertian HAM (Hak Asasi Manusia) menurut Undang-Undang No. 39 Th. 1999. HAM yaitu seperangkat hak yang menempel pada hakekat serta kehadiran manusia sebagai makhlukh Tuhan Yang Maha Esa serta adalah Anugerah-Nya yang harus dihormati, dijunjung tinggi serta dilindungi oleh negara, hukum, pemerintah, serta tiap orang untuk kehormatan dan perlindungan harkat serta martabat manusia. Menurut Pasal 9 UU No. 39 Th. 1999 tentang beberapa macam hak basic manusia yaitu sebagai berikut ini..

  • Hak atas kesejahteraan
  • Hak untuk hidup
  • Hak meningkatkan diri
  • Hak atas rasa aman
  • Hak berkeluarga serta meneruskan keterunan
  • Hak atas kebebasan pribadi
  • Hak atas peroleh keadilan
  • Hak atas wanita
  • Hak anak
  • Hak ikut serta dalam pemerintahan

Basic Hukum Penegakan Hak Asasi Manusia di Indonesia tercatat dalam empat hukum yang menyebutkan mengenai HAM yaitu UUD 1945, Tap MPR, UU, Perda, Kepres, dan lain-lain. Satu diantara ke empat hukum itu yaitu UUD 1945 RI, seperti pasal 27 ayat 1, pasal 28, pasal 29 ayat 2, pasal 30 ayat 1, serta pasal 31 ayat 1. Hak asasi Manusia tiap th. dirayakan di semua negara didunia yaitu pada tanggal 10 Desember.

Bentuk-Bentuk Pelanggaran HAM

kasus pelanggaran ham
Sebanyak 500 eksemplar majalah Lentera edisi ‘Salatiga Kota Merah’ yang membahas tentang sejarah PKI, ditarik dari peredaran. (ANTARA/Aloysius Jarot Nugroho)

Bentuk pelanggaran-pelanggaran HAM yang umum dijumpai orang-orang diantaranya :

  • Diskriminasi yaitu pembatasan, pelecehan, serta pengucilan yang dikerjakan langsung atau tak langsung yang didasarkan pada ketidaksamaan manusia baik itu etni, agama, suku serta ras.
  • Penyiksaan yaitu perbuatan yang menyebabkan rasa sakit atau penderitaan baik itu jasmani ataupun rohani

Bentuk pelanggaran-pelanggaran HAM bersumber pada macamnya diantaranya

a. Bentuk pelanggaran HAM berbentuk berat

  • Pembunuhan massal (genisida)
  • Penghapusan orang secara paksa
  • Pembunuhan sewenang-wenang
  • Perbudakan atau diskriminasi secara systematis

b. Bentuk pelanggarna HAM berbentuk ringan

  • Pencemaran nama baik
  • Pemukulan
  • Menghambat orang untuk mengekspresikan pendapatnya
  • Penganiayaan
  • Menyingkirkan nyawa orang lain

Pelanggaran hak asasi manusia di Indonesia berulang setiap dekade. Tetapi, nyaris tidak ada satu juga masalah HAM yang betul-betul selesai disibak. Alih-alih diketemukan aktor intinya, beberapa masalah jadi tidak terurus.

Dalam rencana memperingati hari HAM serta untuk melawan lupa, Rappler Indonesia mendaftar lima masalah HAM terbesar di Indonesia yang belum pernah tersingkap sampai selesai. Beberapa pelaku intinya juga belum pernah diadili. Berikut ini daftarnya :

5 Kasus Pelanggaran HAM Berat di Indonesia

kasus pelanggaran ham
Aksi teatrikal pantomim ‘Rawat Memori, Rawat Ingatan’ memperingati Hari HAM Sedunia di Jakarta. (CNN Indonesia/Andry Novelino)

1. Masalah tragedi 1965-1966

Beberapa jenderal dibunuh dalam momen 30 September 1965. Pemerintahan orde baru lalu menuding Partai Komunis Indonesia sebagai biang keroknya. Lantas pemerintahan waktu itu membubarkan organisasi itu, serta lakukan razia pada simpatisannya.

Razia itu di kenal dengan operasi pembersihan PKI. Komnas HAM memprediksi 500. 000 sampai 3 juta warga tewas dibunuh waktu itu. Beberapa ribu yang lain diasingkan, serta jutaan orang yang lain mesti hidup di bawah bayang-bayang ‘cap PKI’ sepanjang bertahun-tahun.

Dalam momen ini, Komnas HAM balik menuding Komando Operasi Pemulihan Kemanan serta seluruh panglima militer daerah yang menjabat waktu itu sebagai pihak yang paling bertanggung-jawab.

Sekarang, masalah ini masihlah diakukan oleh Kejaksaan Agung. Tetapi perlakuannya lamban. Th. 2013 lantas, Kejaksaan kembalikan berkas ke Komnas HAM, dengan argumen data kurang komplit.

2. Masalah penembakan misterius (Petrus) th. 1982-1985

Penembakan misterius atau kerap disingkat Petrus dengan kata lain operasi clurit yaitu operasi rahasia yang di gelar bekas Presiden Soeharto dengan dalih menangani tingkat kejahatan yang demikian tinggi.

Operasi ini secara umum mencakup operasi penangkapan serta pembunuhan pada beberapa orang yang dikira mengganggu keamanan serta ketentraman orang-orang, terutama di Jakarta serta Jawa Tengah. Pelakunya tidak terang, tidak pernah tertangkap, serta tidak pernah diadili.

Hasil dari operasi clurit ini, sejumlah 532 orang tewas pada th. 1983. Dari jumlah itu, 367 orang salah satunya tewas akibat luka tembakan. Lalu pada th. 1984, terdaftar 107 orang tewas, di an­­taranya 15 orang tewas ditembak. Satu tahun lalu, pada 1985, terdaftar 74 orang tewas, 28 di an­taranya tewas ditembak.

‘Korban ‘Tembakan Misterius’ ini senantiasa diketemukan dalam keadaan tangan serta lehernya te­ri­kat. Beberapa korban juga dimasukkan kedalam karung yang ditinggal di tepi jalan, di depan tempat tinggal, atau dibuang ke sungai, la­ut, rimba, serta kebun. ‘

3. Tragedi Semanggi serta Kerusuhan Mei 1998

Pada 13-15 Mei 1998, berlangsung kerusuhan massif yang berlangsung nyaris di semua pojok tanah air. Puncaknya di Ibu Kota Jakarta. Kerusuhan ini dimulai oleh keadaan krisis finansial Asia yang semakin lebih buruk. Dan dipicu oleh tewasnya empat mahasiswa Kampus Trisakti yang tertembak dalam demonstrasi pada 12 Mei 1998.

Dalam proses hukumnya, Kejaksaan Agung menyampaikan, masalah ini dapat ditindaklanjuti bila ada referensi dari DPR ke Presiden. Lantaran belum ada referensi, Kejaksaan Agung kembalikan berkas penyelidikan ke Komnas HAM.

Tetapi terakhir, Kejaksaan Agung beralasan masalah ini tidak bisa ditindaklanjuti lantaran DPR udah mengambil keputusan, kalau tak diketemukan pelanggaran HAM berat.

Dalih yang lain, Kejaksaan Agung berasumsi masalah penembakan Trisakti udah diputus oleh Pengadilan Militer pada 1999, hingga tidak bisa diadili untuk ke-2 kalinya.

4. Masalah terbunuhnya aktivis HAM Munir Said Thalib

Munir diketemukan wafat didalam pesawat jurusan Jakarta-Amsterdam, pada 7 September 2004. Waktu itu ia berusia 38 th.. Munir yaitu satu diantara aktivis HAM paling vokal di Indonesia. Jabatan terakhirnya yaitu Direktur Eksekutif Instansi Pemantau Hak Asasi Manusia Indonesia Imparsial.

Waktu menjabat Dewan Kontras (Komite Untuk Orang Hilang serta Korban Tindak Kekerasan), namanya melambung sebagai seseorang pejuang untuk beberapa orang hilang yang diculik pada saat itu. Saat itu dia membela beberapa aktivis sebagai korban penculikan Tim Mawar dari Komando Pasukan Spesial Tentara Nasional Indonesia. Sesudah Soeharto jatuh, penculikan itu jadi argumen pencopotan Danjen Kopassus Prabowo Subianto serta diadilinya beberapa anggota tim Mawar.


One thought on “13 Pelanggaran HAM Berat di Indonesia & Kasus HAM Selama 2015

  1. pelanggran HAM nya ngeri2 amat ya, saya ada sebagian yang sudah tahu dan sebagiannya lgi blm, maksh bnyk nih infonya

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