Kelahiran Dan Perkembangan Nasionalisme Bangsa Indonesia

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Kelahiran Dan Perkembangan Nasionalisme Bangsa Indonesia Selamat datang di Lahiya, situs (blog) sederhana yang berbagi ilmu dan pengetahuan dengan penuh keikhlasan. Dan, pada kesempatan kali ini, kami bakal sharing pengetahuan mengenai Kelahiran Dan Perkembangan Nasionalisme Bangsa Indonesia, dan langsung saja kita mulai pembahasannya, ya.

Lahirnya Nasionalisme Indonesia

Indonesia sudah dijajah oleh bangsa Barat mulai sejak abad XVII, tetapi kesadaran nasional sebagai satu bangsa baru muncul pada abad XX. Kesadaran itu muncul sebagai akibat dari system pendidikan yang dikembangkan oleh pemerintah kolonial. Lantaran, lewat pendidikanlah muncul golongan terpelajar atau intelektual sebagai motor penggerak nasionalisme Indonesia. Lewat tangan merekalah, perjuangan bangsa Indonesia didalam membebaskan diri dari belenggu kolonialisme serta imperialisme Barat memasuki babak baru. Inilah yang lantas di kenal dengan periode gerakan nasional. Perjuangan tidak lagi dilakukan dengan perlawanan berkosenjata namun dengan memakai organisasi modern.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [http://peritonealmesotheliomatreatment.com/] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [http://mesotheliomatreatmentnews.com/] Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Lan_Sipenyair/912820 Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6234654

Ide-ide yang muncul pada masa-masa gerakan nasional cuma terbatas pada beberapa bangsawan terdidik saja. Tidak hanya merekalah yang memiliki tingkat pendidikan yang tinggi juga lantaran cuma golongan bangsawanlah yang dapat mengikuti pola fikir pemerintah kolonial. Mereka mengerti kalau pemerintah kolonial yang mempunyai organisasi yang rapi serta kuat tidak mungkin saja dihadapi lewat cara tradisional seperti perlawanan rakyat di awal. Inilah letak arti penting organisasi modern untuk perjuangan kebangsaan.

Ada beberapa aspek yang mengakibatkan lahirnya nasionalisme Indonesia. Secara umum dapat digolongkan jadi dua, yakni aspek yang datang dari dalam serta luar. Aspek dari dalam diantaranya sebagai berikut ini:

  • Semua Nusantara sudah jadi kesatuan politik, hukum, pemerintahan, serta ada dibawah kekuasaan kolonial Belanda. Ironisnya yaitu eksploitasi Barat itu malah dapat menyatukan rakyat jadi senasib sependeritaan.
  • Munculnya golongan intelektual sebagai efek system pendidikan Barat. Golongan inilah yang dapat mempelajari bermacam ide konsep Barat untuk jadikan ideologi serta dasar gerakan dalam melawan kolonialisme Barat.
  • Beberapa tokoh pergerakan dapat memanfaatkan masa lalu kejayaan masa-masa lalu (Sriwijaya, Majapahit, serta Mataram) untuk dijadikan motivasi dalam bergerak serta meningkatkan rasa yakin diri rakyat didalam berjuang menghadapi kolonialisme Barat.

Keadaan itulah yang dapat memompa harga diri bangsa untuk menyatu, bebas, serta merdeka dari penjajahan. Walau demikian, mesti disadari kalau timbulnya kesadaran berbangsa itu juga adalah efek tidak langsung dari pelebaran kolonialisme. Oleh sebab itu, beberapa mahasiswa sebagai penggerak paling utama nasionalisme Indonesia dapat disebut dengan sebagai tokoh penggerak dari masyarakat. Sedang aspek yang datang dari luar negeri diantaranya kemenangan Jepang atas Rusia dalam perang th. 1905 yang dapat mengangkat rasa percaya diri kalau bangsa berwarna dapat menaklukkan bangsa kulit putih, lahirnya nasionalisme di lokasi Asia serta Afrika yang sukses membentuk negara-negara baru, dan beberapa prinsip dari Woodrow Wilson yang termuat dalam Wilson 14 points. Seluruh nilai-nilai yang datang dari luar itu sukses diserap oleh beberapa tokoh pelajar intelektual kita yang sedang belajar diluar negeri.

Perkembangan Nasionalisme Indonesia

Sejak beberapa gagasan perubahan serta nasionalisme mulai masuk ke Indonesia, ada perubahan didalam menghadapi kolonialisme serta imperialisme Barat. Perubahan itu diantaranya meliputi strategi, pemimpin pergerakan, serta cakupan lokasi gerakan. Perlawanan pada kolonialisme tidak lagi ditempuh lewat perjuangan bersenjata namun memakai organisasi atau perkumpulan yang di pimpin oleh golongan bangsawan terpelajar dengan cakupan lokasi yang lintas etnis serta budaya. Satu diantara aspek yang dapat mempersatukannya yaitu adanya kesadaran nasional.

Kesadaran itu mulai bangkit sesudah periode politik etis diterapkan di Indonesia. Periode ini ditandai oleh munculnya priayi baru yang meletakkan pendidikan sebagai kunci perubahan masyarakat. Oleh sebab itu, tidak aneh jika banyak organisasi gerakan yang meletakkan pendidikan sebagai maksud gerakan. Berikut ini yaitu gerakan yang muncul sesudah kesadaran nasional mulai muncul di Indonesia.

Budi Utomo

Politik etis yang diberlakukan oleh pemerintah kolonial Belanda membawa efek timbulnya priyayi Jawa yang “baru” atau priyayi rendahan, mereka mempunyai pandangan bahwa kunci dari perkembangan yaitu pendidikan. golongan inilah yang lantas dianggap sebagai golongan pembentuk organisasi gerakan yang betul-betul modern.

Dilatar belakangi keadaan ekonomi yang buruk di Jawa, Dr. Wahidin Sudiro Husodo pada th. 1906-1907 berkeliling pulau jawa, untuk memberikan penerangan mengenai cita-citanya pada beberapa pegawai Belanda serta dalam berupaya mencari dana untuk beasiswa bagi pelajar Indonesia yang kurang dapat namun cakap, Dr. Wahidin berkemauan untuk membangun badan pendidikan yang di sebut Studifonds. Usaha dr. Wahidin tidak mendapatkan respon yang positif dari pegawai pemerintahan Belanda. Tetapi usahanya memperoleh tanggapan dari beberapa pelajar. Usaha beliaulah yang disebut pendorong untuk pelajar, untuk membangun organisasi.

Organisasi Budi Utomo berdiri tanggal 20 Mei 1908 oleh beberapa mahasiswa Sekolah Kedokteran (STOVIA) di Jakarta, yakni Sutomo, Suraji, Gunawan Mangunkusumo. Budi Utomo (BU) ini mulai sejak awal udah mengambil keputusan bagian pendidikan sebagai fokus perhatiannya, dengan lokasi Jawa serta Madura sebagai tujuan. Pro serta kontra senantiasa memberi warna dalam kehidupan berorganisasi, tidak terkecuali BU. Yang kontra membangun organisasi tandingan Regent Bond, yang anggota-anggotanya datang dari kelompok bupati penganut status quo yang tidak menginginkan perubahan. Sedang yang pro, diantaranya Tirto Kusumo, adalah kelompok muda yang berpikiran maju.

Pada kongres BU yang diadakan pada 3-5 Oktober 1908, Tirto Kusumo diangkat jadi Ketua Pengurus Besar. Dalam kongres ini etnonasionalisasi makin bertambah besar. Tidak hanya itu, dalam kongres itu juga muncul dua golongan, yakni golongan pertama diwakili olah golongan pemuda yang merupakan minoritas yang cenderung meniti jalan politik dalam menghadapi pemerintah kolonial. Mengenai golongan kedua adalah kelompok mayoritas diwakili oleh kelompok tua yang meniti perjuangan lewat cara lama, yakni sosiokultural.

Kelompok minoritas yang berpandangan maju dalam organisasi ini dipelopori oleh Dr. Tjipto Mangunkusumo. Dia mau Budi Utomo tidak cuma sebagai organisasi yang mementingkan rakyat, tetapi organisasi yang mempunyai jaringan di semua Indonesia. Sementara itu, kelompok tua menginginkan dibuatnya Dewan Pimpinan yang didominasi oleh kelompok tua. Kelompok ini dapat mensupport pendidikan yang luas untuk golongan priyayi serta mendorong aktivitas entrepreneur Jawa. Tjipto dipilih sebagai satu diantara anggota dewan. Tetapi, pada 1909 ia mengundurkan diri serta bergabung dengan Indische Partiij.

Sarekat Islam

Organisasi ini awalnya adalah perkumpulan para pedagang muslim yang dirintis oleh H. Samanhudi serta R. M. Tirtoadisuryo th. 1909. Maksudnya untuk melindungi hak-hak beberapa pedagang muslim dari monopoli pedagang-pedagang besar Cina. Pada th. 1911, Haji Samanhudi membangun Sarekat Dagang Islam untuk mengumpulkan pedagang muslim supaya dapat berkompetisi dengan pedagang dari Arab, India, serta Cina. Maksud gerakannya yaitu meningkatkan perekonomian anggotanya.

Organisasi ini lantas berkembang ke arah politik sesudah dipegang oleh Haji Oemar Said Tjokroaminoto serta berganti nama jadi Sarekat Islam. Penindasan-penindasan yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah kolonial tidak luput dari perjuangan organisasi ini, terlebih jumlah anggotanya amat besar. Maksud gerakan ini diantaranya memajukan rakyat dengan cara persaudaraan serta tolong-menolong sesama muslim. Pemerintah pada akhirnya memberikan kemampuan hukum th. 1916, hingga SI dapat mengirimkan anggotanya ke Volksraad.

Sarekat Islam berubah lebih radikal sesudah disusupi paham sosialis yang dibawa oleh Sneevliet (pendiri Indische Sosialistische Demokratische Vereeniging atau ISDV). Tidak hanya menebarkan paham sosialis juga terang-terangan menentang kebijakan Tjokroaminoto. Pada akhirnya, organisasi ini pecah jadi dua, yakni SI Putih dibawah pimpinan H. O. S. Tjokroaminoto (Islam) serta SI Merah dibawah Semaun (Sosialis Komunis).

Indische Partij

Inilah organisasi kaum Indo pertama yang menanamkan kesadaran kebangsaan Indonesia. Organisasi yang dirintis oleh Douwes Dekker, mempunyai tujuan menghapuskan kolonialisme serta eksploitasi Belanda atas rakyat Hindia Belanda. Pada th. 1912, ia mengajak Suwardi Suryaningrat serta Cipto Mangunkusumo untuk mengembangkan organisasi. Sebagai organisasi yang berhaluan nasionalis, anggotanya berlatar belakang lintas etnis serta budaya. Oleh sebab itu, semboyan organisasi ini yaitu Hindia untuk bangsa Hindia.

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