Manusia Purba di Indonesia, Asia, dan Eropa

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Manusia Purba di Indonesia, Asia, dan Eropa Baiklah sahabat, di kesempatan ini kita akan mengulas tentang Manusia Purba di Indonesia, Asia, serta Eropa. Tidak perlu berpanjang kata lagi langsung saja kita masuk ke pembahasannya.

Manusia Purba di Indonesia

Riset pada manusia purba di Indonesia dikerjakan oleh Eugene Dubois yang pada tahun 1981 menemukan fosil atap tengkorak di trinil. Penemuannya itu jadi sisi yang penting dalam pengetahuan palaentologi sekaligus mengawali dijalankannya riset yang lain pada manusia purba yang ada di Indonesia.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [] Article Source: Article Source:

Meganthropus Palaeojavanicus

Meganthropus Palaeojavanicus atau umum disebut juga manusia raksasa dari jawa kuno lantaran mempunyai tubuh yang besar serta tegap. Penemunya yakni G. H. R von Koenigswald pada tahun 1936-1941 di Sangiran, Sragen, Jawa Tengah. Sisi fosil yang ditemukan yakni rahang bawah, beberapa sisi tengkorak kepala serta gigi geraham. Susunan dari gigi geraham memperlihatkan kalau manusia purba ini cuma mengonsumsi tumbuh-tumbuhan. Fosil yang ditemukan diprediksikan hidup kisaran satu atau dua juta tahun waktu lalu pada pleitosen bawah.

Ciri-ciri lain dari manusia purba ini yakni:

  • Memiliki tubuh tegap serta besar
  • Mempunyai volume otak yang kecil
  • Ada tonjolan tajam di belakang kepala
  • Mempunyai tulang pipi yang tebal
  • Ada tonjolan kening yang mencolok
  • Tidak memiliki dagu
  • Memiliki otot kunyah, gigi dan rahang yang kuat
  • Mengonsumsi tumbuh-tumbuhan
  • Ukuran geraham yang lebih besar


Manusia Purba dari bentuk pithecanthropus adalah manusia purba yang paling banyak ditemukan di Indonesia. Arti dari Pithecanthropus yakni Manusia Kera. Berdasarkan usia lapisan tanah dimana fosil ini ditemukan berumur kurang lebih 30000-2 juta tahun.

Ciri dari Manusia Purba Pithecanthropus yakni:

  • Mempunyai tinggi kisaran 160-180cm
  • Memiliki postur tubuh yang tegap namun tidak setegap Meganthropus Palaeojavanicus
  • Memiliki tonjolan kening yang tebal di sepanjang pelipis
  • Memiliki otot kunyah
  • Memiliki hidung yang lebar serta tidak berdagu
  • Jenis makanan terdiri atas tumbuhan serta hewan

Manusia purba dari bentuk Pithecanthropus mempunyai beberapa bentuk yakni:

  • Pithecanthropus Mojokertensis (Manusia Kera dari Mojokerto), diketemukan oleh Von Koenigswald di kota Mojokerto provinsi jawa timur pada tahun 1936. Fosil berbentuk tengkorak, lantaran ditemukan di Mojokerto namanya yakni Pithecanthropus Mojokertensis.
  • Pithecanthropus Erectus (Manusia Kera berjalan tegak), fosil ini ditemukan oleh Eugene Dubois pada tahun 1890 di Trinil, Lembah Bengawan Solo. Manusia purba dari bentuk ini udah dapat berjalan tegak. Fosil yang ditemukan berbentuk tulang rahang, sisi atas tengkorak, geraham serta tulang kaki.
  • Pithecanthropus Soloensis (Manusia Kera dari Solo), ditemukan oleh von Koenigswald dan Openorth di daerah Ngandong serta daerah Sangiran, di pinggir Sungai Bengawan Solo, pada tahun 1931 – 1933. Lantaran di temukan di solo di namakan Pithecanthropus Soloensis atau manusia kera dari Solo.

Homo (Manusia)

Fosil manusia purba dari bentuk ini adalah fosil termuda di antara fosil manusia purba yang lain. Homo erectus mempunyai arti Manusia berjalan tegak dan Homo Sapiens artinya manusia cerdas. Fosil ini berada pada susunan notopurpo serta umurnya berkisar antara 25. 000-40. 000 tahun.

Ciri-cirinya yakni:

  • Mempunyai tinggi 130-210cm
  • Mempunyai otak yang lebih berkembang
  • Otot kunyah, gigi serta rahang udah menyusut
  • Tonjolan kening menyusut serta berdagu
  • Memiliki ciri-ciri ras Mongoloid serta Austramelanosoid

Manusia purba dari bentuk Homo terdiri atas beberapa bentuk, diantaranya yakni:

  • Homo Soloensis, fosil manusia purba bentuk ini ditemukan Von Koenigswald dan Weidenrich pada tahun 193-1934 dilembah Bengawan Solo. Fosil yang ditemukan berbentuk tengkorak. Dari Volume Otaknya, di ketahui kalau manusia purba bentuk ini bukanlah termasuk dalam kelompok manusia kera (Pithecanthropus).
  • Homo Wajakensis, fosil manusia purba bentuk ini ditemukan oleh Dubois pada tahun 1889 di daerah Wajak dekat Tulungagung. Manusia bentuk ini udah dapat membuat alat-alat serta batu ataupun tulang. Mereka juga sudah mengetahui cara memasak makanan. Fosil yang ditemukan berbentuk tengkorak atas serta beberapa ruas tulang leher. Manusia ini di golongkan sebagai Homo sapiens.

Manusia Purba dari Asia

Penemuan fosil manusia purba di Asia diantaranya ada di daerah Peking. Nama dari fosil itu yakni Homo erectus pekinensis atau Sinanthropus pekinensis yang mempunyai arti Manusia Peking (saat ini Beijing), Cina. Fosil ini ditemukan oleh Davidson Son Black dan Franz Waidenreich pada tahun 1929-1980 di dalam gua Zhoukoudian (Choukoutien), dekat Beijing (Peking), Cina. Diduga fosil ini hidup pada 250. 000-400. 000 tahun yang lalu, pada jaman Pleistosen. Sinanthropus pekinensis mempunyai volume isi otak sekitar lebih kurang 900 hingga 1200 cm kubik serta tinggi tubuh berkisar 165-180cm.

Manusia Purba dari Eropa

Bentuk manusia purba yang ditemukan di Benua Eropa disebut dengan Homo Neandherthalensis yang artinya Manusia Neandherthalensis. Fosil dari manusia purba bentuk ini ditemukan oleh seorang peneliti Rudolf Virchow di lembah Neander, Dusseldorf, Jerman Barat pada tahun 1856. Jejak proto-Neandherthal pertama keluar di Eropa pada 600. 000-350. 000 tahun yang lalu. Tidak hanya itu, manusia purba dari bentuk Neandherthalensis ini sudah dapat berinovasi serta membuat tehnologi baru. Hal semacam ini bersumber pada pada situ-situs arkeologi Uluzzian yakni salah satu kelompok etnis dari Neandherthalensis di Italia Selatan sudah ditemukan beberapa peralatan hidup yang dipakai mereka pada ketika itu. Peralatannya terdiri atas alat memancing, berburu, proyektil dan peralatan yang lain dari batu dan tulang. Nah, tidak hanya di Jerman fosil manusia purba juga ditemukan di Gua Spy, Belgia. Sedangkan di Prancis sendiri ditemukan bentuk manusia purba Paranthropus Robustus dan Paranthropus Transvaalensis.

Manusia Purba di Cina

Manusia purba yang ditemukan di Cina disebut dengan Homo Pekinensis, yang memiliki arti “manusia dari Peking” (saat ini Beijing). Homo Pekinensis ditemukan di Gua Choukoutien kurang lebih 40 km dari Peking. Fosil ini ditemukan oleh seorang sarjana dari Kanada bernama Devidson Black. Berdasarkan penyelidikan, kerangka bentuk manusia purba ini mirip kerangka Pithecanthropus Erectus. Oleh karenanya, beberapa pakar menyebutnya juga dengan nama Pithecanthropus Pekinensis atau Sinanthropus Pekinensis yang memiliki arti “manusia kera dari Peking”.

Manusia Purba di Afrika

Manusia purba yang ditemukan di afrika disebut dengan Homo Africanus yang memiliki arti “manusia dari Afrika”. Fosilnya ditemukan oleh Reymond Dart. Fosil ini ditemukan di dekat sebuah pertambangan Taung Bostwana, tahun 1924. Sesudah direkonstruksi nyatanya membentuk kerangka seorang anak yang berumur kurang lebih 5 hingga 6 tahun. Fosil ini diberi nama Australopithecus Africanus, lantaran nyaris serupa dengan masyarakat asli Australia. Berikutnya, Robert Broom temukan fosil serupa yang berbentuk tengkorak orang dewasa ditempat yang sama.

Manusia Purba di Eropa

Manusia purba yang ditemukan di Eropa disebut dengan Homo Neandherthalensis. Nama itu mengandung arti “manusia Neanderthal”. Manusia bentuk ini ditemukan oleh Rudolf Virchow di lembah Neander, Dusseldorf, Jerman Barat tahun 1856. Selain di Jerman, juga ditemukan di Gua Spy Belgia. Di Prancis ditemukan manusia purba yang disebut dengan Homo Cro Magnon.


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