Mengungkap Perintah Rahasia Bung Karno dan Kisah Cikal Bakal Paspampres 72 Tahun Lalu

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Lahiya – Sebuah peristiwa bersejarah tercipta pada tanggal 3 Januari 1946. Waktu itu, sekawanan pemuda yang selama ini sukarela melindungi dan mengawal Presiden Soekarno menjadi saksi sekaligus pelakon berlangsungnya sebuah operasi penyelamatan.

Dalam buku 70 Tahun Paspampres, Mayjen TNI (Purn) Sukotjo Tjokroatmodjo yang merupakan Mantan pengawal Bung Karno mengisahkan, pada akhir tahun 1945 kondisi di Jakarta semakin tidak kondusif. Kelompok pro-Belanda dan kelompok pro-kemerdekaan saling serang.

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Mohammad Roem yang merupakan Komisi Nasional Jakarta  mendapat serangan fisik. Perdana Menteri Sjahrir dan Menteri Penerangan Amir Sjarifuddin juga nyaris dibunuh simpatisan Belanda. Demikian seperti dikutip dari laporan, Rabu (03/01/2018).

“Karena itu, pada tanggal 1 Januari 1946, Presiden Soekarno memberikan perintah rahasia kepada Balai Yasa Manggarai untuk segera menyiapkan rangkaian kereta api demi menyelamatkan para petinggi negara,” demikian diungkapkan oleh Sukotjo.

Baca juga: Rangkaian Kecelakaan di Proyek Tol Jokowi, Benarkah karena Dikebut?

Pemindahan Ibu Kota, Hari Lahir Paspampres

Tanggal 3 Januari 1946, Bung Karno memutuskan untuk memindahkan ibu kota dari Jakarta ke Yogyakarta. Sejumlah pejabat negara mulai dari Presiden Soekarno dan Wakil Presiden Hatta beserta beberapa menteri/staf dan keluarganya harus segera berangkat ke Yogya.

Rombongan meninggalkan Perdana Menteri Sutan Sjahrir dan kelompok yang bernegosiasi dengan Belanda di Jakarta.

Perpindahan dilakukan dengan menggunakan kereta api berjadwal khusus sehingga disebut dengan Kereta Luar Biasa (KLB).

Perjalanan KLB ini menggunakan lokomotif uap nomor C2849 bertipe C28 buatan pabrik Henschel, Jerman, dengan rangkaian kereta inspeksi yang disediakan Djawatan Kereta Api (DKA).

Rangkaian kereta api ini terdiri dari delapan kereta mencakup satu kereta bagasi, dua kereta penumpang kelas 1 dan 2, satu kereta makan, satu kereta tidur kelas 1, satu kereta tidur kelas 2, satu kereta inspeksi untuk Presiden, dan satu kereta inspeksi untuk Wakil Presiden.

Sukotjo menuturkan, saat itu perjalanan dimulai pada sore hari dengan KLB berangkat dari Stasiun Manggarai menuju Halte Pegangsaan dan kereta api berhenti tepat di belakang rumah Bung Karno di Jalan Pegangsaan Timur 56.

Selang 15 menit keberangkatan, KLB kembali ke Stasiun Manggarai dan memasuki jalur 6. Kereta api kemudian melanjutkan perjalanan ke Jatinegara dengan kecepatan 25 km per jam.

KLB berhenti di Stasiun Jatinegara menunggu sinyal aman dari Stasiun Klender.

“Menjelang pukul 19.00, KLB melanjutkan perjalanan tanpa lampu dan bergerak lambat agar tidak menarik perhatian para pencegat kereta api yang marak di wilayah itu,” ungkap Sukotjo.

Tak hanya di dalam kereta, pengamanan juga dilakukan di jalur jalan raya yang bersinggungan dengan jalur kereta. Sebuah gerbong kosong diletakkan sebagai barikade.

Selepas Stasiun Klender, lampu KLB dinyalakan dan kereta api langsung melaju cepat dengan kecepatan 90 km per jam. Sepanjang perjalanan, KLB hanya berhenti dua kali yakni di Stasiun Cikampek pada pukul 20.00 dan Stasiun Purwokerto pukul 01.00.

Kereta tiba di Yogyakarta pada tanggal 4 Januari 1946 pukul 07.00.

Keberhasilan operasi senyap ini pun dijadikan dasar hari lahirnya Paspampres pada 3 Januari.

Bermula dari Sukarela

Paspampres tidak serta merta lahir dan terbentuk dari organisasi profesional. Organisasi ini baru lahir secara resmi dengan nama “Paspampres” justru pada era Orde Baru.

Meski demikian, jauh sebelum itu, pasca-Indonesia merdeka, upaya perlindungan atau pengawalan terhadap Presiden sebagai kepala negara sudah dilakukan.

Contohnya pada tahun 1945, saat itu hanya polisi yang masih memiliki senjata. Sementara tentara yang berasal dari PETA ataupun Heiho sudah dibubarkan dan dilucuti senjatanya.

Alhasil, para pemuda polisi dari Tokubetsu Keisatsutai (pasukan polisi istimewa) merasa perlu ada pengawalan bagi Presiden dan pimpinan negara lainnya. Niat itu didorong rasa tanggung awab atas keselamatan pimpinan negara meski pun saat itu mereka hanya berbekal senjata api berupa pistol dan senapan seadanya.

Pembantu Inspektur Mangil beserta delapan orang polisi pun mengajukan diri. Sementara itu, pimpinan polisi saat itu belum berani menentukan sikap karena masih berada di bawah pengawasan Jepang.

Setelah pusat pemerintahan dipindahkan ke Yogyakarta, Kapten Polisi Tentara Kafrawi mulai mengatur organisasi pengawalan. Kegiatan Kafrawi ini mendapat dukungan dari Polisi Tentara. Bentukan ini kemudian dinamakan Pasukan Pengawalan Istana Presiden (PPIP).

Sementara Inspektur Mangil memimpin kawal pribadi dengan identitas tetap sebagai polisi.

Memasuki 22 Juni 1946, Polisi Tentara di bawah pimpinan Jenderal Mayor Santoso dibentuk. Kemudian dilakukan kembali pengaturan di mana kawal pribadi tetap di bawah Inspektur Mangil, sedangkan untuk PPIP merupakan 1 kompi Polisi Tentara.

Menjelang tahun 1948, Polisi Tentara AD, Polisi Tentara AL diubah menjadi polisi militer yang meliputi angkatan perang.

Kemudian, Pengawalan VIP berada di bawah Batalion Mobil B CPM dengan pembagian Kompi I di bawah Kapten Tjokropranolo yang mengawal Panglima Besar Jenderal Sudirman. Sedangkan Presiden dikawal Kompi II di bawah Letnan Satu Susetio.

Tanggal 19 Desember 1948, Presiden Soekarno, Wapres Hatta beserta beberapa menteri membiarkan diri ditawan tentara Belanda. Sebagian besar Kompi II juga ditawan.

Namun, Letnan Satu Susetio, Letnan Dua Sukotjo, Letnan Dua Ramelan, beserta 16 orang bintara dan Tamtama dapat meloloskan diri dan terus bergerilya hingga 29 Juni 1946.

Baca juga: Blak-blakan! Fadli Zon Beberkan Statistik Kegagalan Ekonomi Pemerintah Jokowi

Setelah kondisi negara dinyatakan aman, Kompi II kembali mengawal presiden dan mengambil alih pengawalan Istana Presiden di Merdeka Utara, Jakarta.

Dan kini, tepatnya tanggal 3 Januari 2018, Paspampres genap berusia 72 tahun. Di usia yang tak lagi muda, segudang cerita menarik menyertai kerja Paspampres selama ini. Banyak cerita seputar kerja Paspampres, mulai dari yang menarik hingga inspiratif dan patut ditiru. Seperti apa kisahnya? Nantikan di artikel-artikel berikutnya.



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