Metabolisme Karbohidrat: Anabolisme dan Katabolisme Karbohidrat

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Metabolisme Karbohidrat

Keseluruhnya reaksi kimia didalam tubuh organisme yang melibatkan perubahan daya disebut dengan metabolisme. Sebagai makhluk hidup, daya bisa dibuat dari satu proses, atau sebuah proses malah membutuhkan daya.

Biasanya, daya dilepaskan saat tubuh organisme mengolah molekul kompleks jadi molekul yang simpel. Proses itu diberi nama katabolisme.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [] Article Source: Article Source:

Mengenai proses pembentukan senyawa kompleks dari unsur-unsur penyusunnya serta reaksi itu membutuhkan daya diberi nama anabolisme.

1. Katabolisme Karbohidrat

Katabolisme adalah reaksi penguraian atau pemecahan senyawa kompleks jadi senyawa yang lebih simpel untuk membuahkan daya. Proses katabolisme yang terjadi pada makhluk hidup dibedakan jadi respirasi aerob serta respirasi anaerob.

Apakah yang membedakan respirasi aerob dengan respirasi anaerob?

Bersumber pada perubahan dayanya, reaksi kimia bisa dibedakan jadi reaksi eksergonik serta reaksi endergonik. Pada reaksi eksergonik, terjadi pelepasan daya.

Katabolisme adalah reaksi eksergonik. Bila daya yang dilepaskan berbentuk panas, disebut dengan reaksi eksoterm. Mengenai pada reaksi endergonik, terjadi penyerapan daya dari lingkungan.

Anabolisme termasuk juga reaksi endergonik lantaran membutuhkan daya. Bila daya yang dipakai berbentuk panas, disebut dengan reaksi endoterm.

a. Respirasi Aerob

Respirasi mempunyai tujuan membuahkan daya dari sumber nutrisi yang dipunyai. Seluruh makhluk hidup lakukan respirasi serta tidak cuma berbentuk pengambilan hawa secara langsung.

Respirasi dalam hubungannya dengan pembentukan daya dikerjakan didalam sel. Oleh karenanya, prosesnya diberi nama respirasi sel. Organel sel yang berperan dalam menjalani pekerjaan pembentukan daya ini yaitu mitokondria.

Respirasi termasuk juga kedalam grup katabolisme lantaran di dalamnya terjadi penguraian senyawa kompleks jadi senyawa yang lebih simpel, diikuti dengan pelepasan daya. Daya yang kita pakai bisa datang dari hasil metabolisme tumbuhan.

Oleh karenanya, tumbuhan adalah organisme autotrof, yang memiliki arti bisa menghasilkan makanan sendiri. Mengenai customer, seperti hewan serta manusia, yang tidak bisa sediakan makanan sendiri disebut dengan organisme heterotrof.

Proses respirasi erat hubungannya dengan pembakaran bahan bakar berbentuk makanan jadi daya. Keadaan maksimal bakal terwujud dalam keadaan aerob (ada oksigen). Secara singkat, proses yang terjadi sebagai berikut ini.

Pembentukan daya siap gunakan bakal lewat beberapa step reaksi dalam system respirasi sel pada mitokondria. Menurut Campbell, et al, (2006 : 93) reaksi-reaksi itu, yakni :

  1. glikolisis, yaitu proses pemecahan glukosa jadi asam piruvat ;
  2. dekarboksilasi oksidatif asam piruvat, yaitu perombakan asam piruvat jadi asetil Co-A ;
  3. daur asam sitrat, yaitu siklus perombakan asetil Ko-A jadi akseptor elektron serta terjadi pelepasan sumber daya ;
  4. transfer elektron, yaitu mekanisme pembentukan daya paling besar dalam proses respirasi sel yang membuahkan product sambilan berbentuk air.

metabolisme karbohidrat

1) Glikolisis

Step ini adalah awal terjadinya respirasi sel. Molekul glukosa bakal

masuk kedalam sel lewat proses difusi. Supaya bisa bereaksi, glukosa di beri daya aktivasi berbentuk satu ATP. Hal semacam ini menyebabkan glukosa dalam kondisi terfosforilasi jadi glukosa-6-fosfat yang dibantu oleh enzim heksokinase.

Secara singkat, glukosa-6-fosfat dipecah jadi 2 buah molekul gliseraldehid-3-fosfat (PGAL) dengan pertolongan satu ATP serta enzim fosfoheksokinase. Proses berikutnya adalah proses eksergonik.

Hasil yaitu 4 molekul ATP serta hasil akhir berbentuk 2 molekul asam piruvat (C3). Secara komplit, proses glikolisis yang terjadi sebagai berikut ini (Gambar 2. 10).

metabolisme karbohidrat

Meskipun empat molekul ATP dibuat pada step glikolisis, tetapi hasil reaksi keseluruhnya yaitu dua molekul ATP. Ada dua molekul ATP yang perlu diberikan pada fase awal glikolisis. Step glikolisis tidak membutuhkan oksigen.

Setiap asam piruvat yang dihasilkan kemudian akan diubah menjadi Asetil-KoA (koenzim-A). Asam piruvat ini akan mengalami dekarboksilasi hingga gugus karboksil bakal hilang sebagai CO2 serta bakal berdifusi keluar sel.

Dua gugus karbon yang tersisa lantas bakal alami oksidasi hingga gugus hidrogen di keluarkan serta di tangkap oleh akseptor elektron NAD+.

Cermati Gambar 2. 11. Gugus yang terbentuk, lantas ditambahkan koenzim-A hingga jadi asetil-KoA.

Hasil akhir dari proses dekarboksilasi oksidatif ini bakal membuahkan 2 asetil-KoA serta 2 molekul NADH. Pembentukan asetil-KoA membutuhkan hadirnya vitamin B1.

Bersumber pada hal itu, bisa di ketahui begitu utamanya vitamin B dalam tubuh hewan ataupun tumbuhan.


3) Daur Asam Sitrat

Proses berikutnya yaitu daur asetil-KoA jadi beberapa bentuk hingga dibuat banyak akseptor elektron. Tidak hanya disebut dengan sebagai daur asam sitrat, proses ini disebut juga dengan daur Krebs.

Hans A. Krebs yaitu orang yang pertama kalinya mencermati serta menerangkan fenomena ini pada th. 1930.

metabolisme karbohidrat

Tiap bagian dalam daur asam sitrat dikatalis oleh enzim yang spesial. Berikut ini yaitu beberapa bagian yang terjadi dalam daur asam sitrat. (Gambar 2. 12).

a) Asetil-KoA bakal menyumbangkan gugus asetil pada oksaloasetat hingga terbentuk asam sitrat. Koenzim A bakal di keluarkan serta digantikan dengan menambahkan molekul air.

b) Perubahan formasi asam sitrat jadi asam isositrat bakal dibarengi pelepasan air.

c) Asam isositrat bakal melepas satu gugus atom C dengan pertolongan enzim asam isositrat dehidrogenase, membuat asam B-ketoglutarat. NAD+ bakal mendapat donor elektron dari hidrogen untuk membuat NADH. Asam B-ketoglutarat berikutnya dirubah jadi suksinil KoA.

d) Asam suksinat tiokinase bantu pelepasan gugus KoA serta ADP mendapat donor fosfat jadi ATP. Pada akhirnya, suksinil-KoA beralih jadi asam suksinat.

e) Asam suksinat dengan pertolongan suksinat dehidrogenase bakal beralih jadi asam fumarat dibarengi pelepasan satu gugus elektron. Pada step ini, elektron bakal di tangkap oleh akseptor FAD jadi FADH2.

f) Asam Fumarat bakal dirubah jadi asam malat dengan pertolongan enzim fumarase.

g) Asam malat bakal membuat asam oksaloasetat dengan pertolongan enzim asam malat dehidrogenase. NAD+ bakal terima sumbangan elektron dari step ini serta membuat NADH.

h) Dengan terbentuknya asam oksaloasetat, siklus akan diawali lagi dengan sumbangan dua gugus karbon dari asetil KoA.

4) Transfer Elektron

Sepanjang tiga proses di awal, dibuat beberapa reseptor elektron yang bermuatan akibat menambahkan ion hidrogen. Reseptor-reseptor ini lantas bakal masuk ke transfer elektron untuk membuat sebuah molekul tambah energi tinggi, yaitu ATP.

Reaksi ini berjalan didalam membran mitokondria. Reaksi ini berperan membuat daya sepanjang oksidasi yang dibantu oleh enzim pereduksi.

Transfer elektron adalah proses kompleks yang melibatkan NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide), FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide), serta molekul-molekul yang lain.

Dalam pembentukan ATP ini, ada akseptor elektron yang bakal memfasilitasi pertukaran elektron dari satu system ke system yang lain.

a) Enzim dehidrogenase mengambil hidrogen dari zat yang bakal dirubah oleh enzim (substrat). Hidrogen alami ionisasi sebagai berikut ini.

2H 2H+ + 2e elektron

Proton hidrogen mereduksi koenzim NAD lewat reaksi NAD + H+ NADH + H+. NADH dari matriks mitokondria masuk ke ruangan intermembran melalui membran dalam, lantas masuk system rantai pernafasan.


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