Metode Penelitian: Metodologi, Prinsip, Jenis, dan Paradigma

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With tuition breaks for military spouses and dependents, Trident offers affordable fast online degrees to a range of students. Net Price: $11,572/yr Score: 58.85 New England College of Business and Finance Fast Online Degrees Previous jobs, military experience, and past academic coursework will all earn students credit toward the affordable, fast online degree programs at NECB. 8. NEW ENGLAND COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND FINANCE Website Offering accredited fast online degrees for working professionals, this Boston-based school incorporates group projects into its industry-relevant curriculum. This helps students network with potential colleagues and develop the technology-enabled collaboration skills they’ll need in today’s increasingly distributed workplaces. 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For nurses there’s even a RN-to-BSN completion program, making this one of the best fast online degree options in nursing. Grantham recognizes that flexibility is particularly important to first responders – established firefighters, police officers, and EMS professionals – and offers degrees and some scholarship assistance tailored to these groups. There are also scholarships and textbook/software grants for military members and a special partnership with the Community College of the Air Force to help Air Force members complete their bachelor’s degrees through an accelerated program. Net Price: $12,808/yr Score: 62.50 Western Governors University Fast Online Degrees WGU’s customized academic planning make it a source for some of the best fast online degrees. 6. WESTERN GOVERNORS UNIVERSITY Website This nonprofit university grants bachelor’s and master’s degrees in teaching, IT, business, and nursing. The Teacher’s College in particular has many subject–specific licensure programs, helping students prepare efficiently for their careers. Because tuition is charged according to the length of time you are enrolled, not the number of courses you take, you are rewarded financially for progressing quickly – a dream scenario for fast-paced students! You can also get personalized Degree Plans that take into account your prior skills and knowledge, performance on pre-enrollment assessments, and remaining requirements, so you only take exactly the courses you need. And because WGU requires “On Time Progress,” you’ll have plenty of support to make sure you don’t languish in your academic efforts. Plus, students who have completed either an associate’s degree or coursework at a community college can transfer credits, expediting their progress and making WGU a standout in this ranking of fast online degrees. Net Price: $8,624/yr Score: 62.82 National Paralegal College Fast Online Degree NPC’s legal studies program is a no brainer for students who want a fast online degree studying law and government. 5. NATIONAL PARALEGAL COLLEGE Website Through this school’s accelerated online degree programs, you can earn your bachelor’s in legal studies in under 3 years or an associate’s degree in just 15 months. Lots of interesting classes run simultaneously, some of which you’d expect in a legal curriculum (American Government; Torts and Personal Injury; Constitutional Law and Criminal Procedure) but others will broaden your education, including The Science of Nutrition, Environmental Science, and Laws of Cyberspace. Depending on your schedule, you can join live online lectures or watch recordings whenever you have time. Unsure if this school is right for you? Simply by filling out an application, you’ll get two free weeks of enrollment, including lectures and discussions with your potential instructors and classmates. This free trial period could be just what you need to decide to complete an affordable, fast online degree at NPC. Net Price: $13,709/yr Score: 69.33 American Public University System Online Fast Degrees Students who are eager to earn an affordable fast online degree can enroll at APU as early as next month. 4. AMERICAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY SYSTEM Website APUS has been serving non-traditional students since 1991, well before online education became mainstream. Originally founded as American Military University to cater to mobile military learners, it reorganized into APUS in 2002 in order to serve a wider range of learners – and today 42% of its students are civilians. Even so, American Public University continues to enroll more members of the armed forces than any other school. Although it offers nearly 200 degrees and certificates, the school’s most popular programs include business administration, criminal justice, general studies, sports and health sciences, psychology, and homeland security. With courses starting on the first Monday of every month and lasting either 8 or 16 weeks, there’s no need to wait for a new semester to begin, earning APUS a top spot in our fast online degree rankings. Net Price: $9,572/yr Score: 70.60 American InterContinental University Fast Online Degrees Accredited, fast online degrees are in abundance at AIU, which offers programs in everything from business to web design. 3. AMERICAN INTERCONTINENTAL UNIVERSITY-ONLINE Website In addition to the career-focused fields found at other online schools – business, criminal justice, IT, education, and healthcare – AIU also has several degrees in design fields, making it a great choice for students who want to blend vocational skills and artistic vision. You can earn a Bachelor of Fine Arts in graphic design, web design, illustration, or even fashion. For students who live in the greater Atlanta or Houston areas and want face-to-face learning and physical classrooms, there are campuses waiting to welcome you. A generous credit-transfer program allows you to save time and money, making this a truly affordable fast online degree. AIU also has a special admissions department just for the military and offers a 45% tuition discount to active service members, as well as a 10% discount for Reserves, National Guard, and their spouses. Net Price: $15,495/yr Score: 71.82 Sessions-College-for-Professional-Design(1) 2. SESSIONS COLLEGE FOR PROFESSIONAL DESIGN Website Speaking of artistic degrees for vocational trades, Sessions is a great choice for students who want an accredited fast online degree in the arts, such as graphic design, web design, digital photography, and much more. Experienced designers can also take quick professional development courses in Photoshop and other specific skills without pursuing an entire degree. This makes Sessions a standout among the many online colleges that offer more traditional programs in professional fields like business, teaching, or information technology. While Sessions offers numerous certificates and associates degrees, students can also earn credits that transfer to bachelor’s degrees at Excelsior College. All courses have three different start dates a year – January, May and September – giving you plenty of flexibility when planning your schedule. Net Price: $12,352/yr Score: 74.74 American Broadcasting School Fast Online Degrees The American Broadcasting School is #1 on this fast online degree ranking and undoubtedly the best option for aspiring journalists. 1. AMERICAN BROADCASTING SCHOOL Website Granting an inexpensive, fast online degree in radio broadcasting, this school offers a fast track to careers in news, sports, talk, or music radio, as well as other creative voice opportunities. The entire program takes just over eight months to complete (71% of students graduate), uses exclusively one-on-one instruction, and allows you to work at your own pace. You’ll get all the software and equipment you need (as long as you provide your own computer) and personalized vocal coaching. Starting in your very first week, you’ll have the opportunity to record your own radio shows and receive live critiques from professional instructors. Because success in broadcasting requires more than just talent, you’ll also learn digital production, marketing, and other tools of the broadcasting trade. Looking to enroll quickly? You can begin on any Monday of the year! Net Price: $9,459/yr Score: 82.13 See our methodology page for more information about how we calculated this ranking.* *For this ranking, we added an extra feature to the standard methodology. Because we wanted to focus specifically on “speed” rather than general measures of quality, we custom-designed a scale to rank schools based on this highly desirable “fast factor.” Specifically, we researched each online college and asked ourselves the following questions: Does the school offer bachelor’s degrees that one could complete in less than four years? What about associate’s degrees in less than two years? Are there many short certificate options for students who want to quickly augment their skills in an established field? Are there “accelerated” degree paths and options for students who want to earn a combined bachelor’s/master’s degree? Does the school offer credit for life/work experience and past academic coursework in order to help students move ahead on their degree path? Does the school offer multiple course formats so that students have the option to start several times a year and/or to choose between classes of varying lengths? But don’t worry – we still considered graduation rate and tuition costs as well! We hope this has been helpful in providing information about fast online degrees from accredited colleges. There are many fast online degree programs available, and we encourage you to do a broad search to find the program that’s best for you. THIS CONCLUDES OUR RANKING OF THE BEST VALUES IN FAST ONLINE DEGREES. Sources: College Navigator By CVO Staff Published March 2016 https://www.collegevaluesonline.com/rankings/fast-online-degrees-best-values/

Metode Penelitian

Metodologi penelitian yaitu proses atau langkah ilmiah untuk mendapat data yang bakal dipakai untuk kepentingan riset. Metodologi juga adalah analisa teoretis tentang sebuah langkah atau cara. Riset adalah sebuah penyelidikan yang systematis untuk tingkatkan beberapa pengetahuan, juga adalah sebuah usaha yang systematis serta terorganisasi untuk menyelidiki permasalahan spesifik yang membutuhkan jawaban.

Inti riset bisa dipahami dengan pelajari beragam segi yang mendorong riset untuk lakukan riset. Tiap orang memiliki motivasi yang tidak sama, salah satunya di pengaruhi oleh maksud serta profesi masing-masing. Motivasi serta maksud riset secara umum pada intinya yaitu sama, yakni kalau riset adalah refleksi dari hasrat manusia yang senantiasa berupaya untuk tahu suatu hal. Hasrat untuk peroleh serta meningkatkan pengetahuan adalah keperluan mendasar manusia yang biasanya jadi motivasi untuk lakukan riset.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [http://peritonealmesotheliomatreatment.com/] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [http://mesotheliomatreatmentnews.com/] Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Lan_Sipenyair/912820 Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6234654

Prinsip metodologi

Sebagian prinsip metodologi oleh sebagian pakar, salah satunya :

A. Rene Descartes

Dalam karyanya Discourse On Methoda, dikemukakan 6 (enam) prinsip metodologi yakni :

1. Mengulas permasalahan ilmu dan pengetahuan dengan diawali mengatakan akal sehat (common sense) yang biasanya dipunyai oleh seluruh orang.

Akal sehat menurut Descartes ada yang kurang, adapula yang semakin banyak memilikinya, tetapi yang terutama yaitu aplikasinya dalam kesibukan ilmiah.

2. Menerangkan beberapa aturan pokok mengenai cara yang bakal dipakai dalam kesibukan ilmiah ataupun riset.

Descartes ajukan 4 (empat) langkah atau ketentuan yang bisa mensupport cara yang disebut yakni :

(a) Jangan sampai terima baik apa sajakah sebagai yang benar, bila anda tak memiliki pengetahuan yang pasti tentang kebenarannya. Berarti, dengan jeli jauhi beberapa rangkuman serta pra rencanasi yang tergesa-gesa serta janganlah memasukkan apa pun kedalam pertimbangan anda lebih dari pada yang terkena begitu terang hingga tak perlu diragukan lagi,

(b) Pecahkanlah tiap kesusahan anda jadi sebanyak-banyaknya sisi serta sejumlah yang bisa dikerjakan untuk memudahkan penyelesaiannya secara tambah baik.

(c) Tujukan pemikiran anda secara jernih serta teratur, dari mulai objek yang paling simpel serta paling gampang di ketahui, lantas bertambah sedikit untuk sedikit, setahap untuk setahap ke pengetahuan yang paling kompleks serta dengan mengandaikan suatu hal urutan bahkan juga diantara objek yang saat sebelum itu tak memiliki ketertiban baru.

(d) Buat penomoran untuk semua persoalan selengkap mungkin saja, serta selenggarakan tinjauan lagi secara menyeluruh hingga anda bisa terasa tentu tak sebuah juga yang ketinggal.

(e) Langkah yang digambarkan Descartes ini melukiskan sebuah sikap skeptis metodis dalam peroleh kebenaran yang tentu.

3. Mengatakan sebagian aturan moral sebagai landasan untuk aplikasi cara sebagai berikut ini :

(a) Mematuhi undang-undang serta kebiasaan istiadat negeri, sembari berdasar pada agama yang di ajarkan mulai sejak masa-masa kanak-kanak.

(b) Melakukan tindakan tegas serta mantap, baik pada pendapat yang paling memberikan keyakinan ataupun yang paling menyangsikan.

(c) Berupaya lebih merubah sendiri dari pada merombak tatanan dunia.

4. Menyatakan dedikasi pada kebenaran yang seringkali terkecoh oleh indera. Kita memanglah bisa memikirkan diri kita tak beralih tetapi kita tidak bisa memikirkan diri kita tak bereksistensi, lantaran dapat dibuktikan kita bisa meragukan kebenaran pendapat lain. Oleh karenanya, kita barangkali menyangsikan semua suatu hal, tetapi kita mustahil menyangsikan kita sendiri yang tengah dalam kondisi beberapa sangsi.

5. Menyatakan tentang dualisme dalam diri manusia yang terdiri atas dua substansi yakni RESCOGITANS (jiwa bernalar) serta RES-EXTENSA (jasmani yang meluas). Tubuh (Res-Extensa) dimisalkan dengan mesin yang pastinya lantaran ciptaan Tuhan, teratur tambah baik. Atas ketergantungan pada dua kodrat adalah jiwa bernalar serta kodrat jasmani. Jiwa secara kodrat mustahil mati berbarengan dengan tubuh. Jiwa manusia itu kekal.

B. Alfred Julesayer

Dalam karyanya yang berjudul Language, Truth and Logic yang berkaitan dengan prinsip metodologi yaitu prinsip verifikasi. Ada dua bentuk verifikasi yakni :

1. Verifikasi dalam makna yang ketat (strong verifiable) yakni sejauh mana kebenaran sebuah proposisi (sebagian sangkaan) itu mensupport pengalaman secara meyakinkan

2. Verifikasi dalam makna yang lunak, yakni bila sudah buka peluang untuk terima pernyataan dalam bagian sejarah (masa-masa lampau) serta ramalan masa-masa depan sebagai pernyataan yang memiliki kandungan makna

3. Ayer menolak kecemasan metafisika dalam dunia ilmiah, lantaran pernyataan-pernyataan metafisika (termasuk juga norma theologi) adalah pernyataan yang MEANING LESS (tak berarti) karena tidak bisa dikerjakan verifikasi apa pun.

C. Karl Raimund Popper

K. R. Popper seseorang filsuf kontemporer yang lihat kekurangan dalam prinsip verifikasi berbentuk karakter pembenaran (juicetification) pada teori yang sudah ada. K. R. Popper ajukan prinsip verifikasi sebagai berikut ini :

1. Popper menampik asumsi umum kalau sebuah teori dirumuskan serta bisa dibuktikan kebenarannya lewat prinsip verifikasi. Teori-teori ilmiah senantiasa berbentuk hipotetis (sangkaan lalu), tidak ada kebenaran paling akhir. Tiap teori senantiasa terbuka untuk digantikan oleh teori lain yang lebih pas.

2. Langkah kerja cara induksi yang secara systematis diawali dari penilaian (observasi) secara cermat tanda-tanda (simpton) yang tengah diselidiki. Penilaian yang berulang -ulang itu bakal memerlihatkan ada ciri umum yang dirumuskan jadi hipotesis. Berikutnya hipotesis itu dikukuhkan lewat cara temukan bukti-bukti empiris yang bisa mendukungnya. Hipotesis yang sukses dibenarkan (juicetifikasi) bakal beralih jadi hukum. K. R. Popper menampik langkah kerja diatas, terlebih pada azas verifiabilitas, kalau satu pernyataan itu bisa dibenarkan bersumber pada bukti-bukti verifikasi penilaian empiris.

3. K. R Popper tawarkan pemecahan baru dengan ajukan prinsip FALSIFA BILITAS, yakni kalau satu pernyataan bisa dibuktikan kekeliruannya. Tujuannya satu hipotesis, hukum, atau mungkin teori kebenarannya berbentuk lalu, sejauh belum ada diketemukan beberapa kekeliruan yang ada di dalamnya. Umpamanya, bila ada pernyataan kalau seluruh angsa berbulu putih lewat prinsip falsifiabilitas itu cukup diketemukan seekor angsa yang bukanlah berbulu putih (tak tahu hitam, kuning, hijau, dan sebagainya), robohlah pernyataan itu. Tetapi jika sebuah hipotesis bisa bertahan melawan semua usaha penyangkalan, hipotesis itu makin diperkukuh .

Karakteristik penelitian

materi-metodologi-penelitian

1. Maksud riset yaitu untuk peroleh pengetahuan yang bisa menjawab beragam pertanyaan-pertanyaan atau bisa memecahkan sebuah persoalan yang ada dalam batasan permasalahan.

2. Metodologi riset yaitu pengetahuan yang membahas ketetapan tentang sebagian cara yang dipakai dalam riset.

3. Riset serta pengetahuan adalah operasionalisasi dari cara yang dipakai untuk peroleh pengetahuan ilmiah.

Proses penelitian

1. Permasalahan riset penelitian meliputi : penemuan permasalahan serta pemecahan permasalahan step : identifikasi bagian persoalan, penentuan atau penentuan pokok permasalahan serta perumusan permasalahan kajian teoretis membuat kerangka teoretis sebagai mendasar untuk menjawab permasalahan atau pertanyaan riset.

2. Pengujian kenyataan (data) meliputi : penentuan, pengumpulan serta analisa kenyataan yang berkaitan dengan permasalahan yang di teliti data : beberapa kumpulan kenyataan yang didapat lewat penilaian (0bservasi) atau survey. rangkuman adalah hasil riset yang berikan feed back pada permasalahan atau pertanyaan riset.

Paradigma penelitian

Paradigma kuantitatif

a. Paradigma tradisional, positivis, eksperimental, empiris.

b. Menekankan pada pengujian teori-teori melalui pengukuran variabel penelitian dengan angka dan melakukan analisis data dengan prosedur statistik.

c. Realitas bersifat objektif dan berdimensi tunggal.

d. Peneliti independen terhadap fakta yang diteliti.

e. Bebas nilai dan tidak bias.

f. Pendekatan deduktif.

g. Pengujian teori dan analisis kuantitatif.

Paradigma kualitatif

a. Pendekatan konstruktifis, naturalistis (interpretatif), atau perspektif postmodern.

b. Menekankan pada pemahaman mengenai masalah-masalah dalam kehidupan sosial berdasarkan kondisi realitas.

c. Realitas bersifat subjektif dan berdimensi banyak.

d. Peneliti berinteraksi dengan fakta yang diteliti.

e. Tidak bebas nilai dan bias.

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