Flagellata: Pengertian, Ciri-ciri, Klasifikasi, dan Struktur

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Flagellata

Falgellata: Pengertian, Ciri-ciri, Klasifikasi, dan Struktur. Kita akan membahas mengenai Flagelatta salah satu protozoa yang hidup dalam air maupun hidup di daratan. Protozoa yang satu ini memiliki dua kelompok yang cukup besar. Berikut penjelasan lebih lengkap mengenai Flagellata.

A. Pengertian Flagellata

Flagellata adalah arti yang datang dari bahasa latin flagel yang bermakna cambuk. Flagellata dikenal juga dengan sebutan Mastigophora, di mana dalam bahasa Yunani terbagi dalam kata mastig yang bermakna cambuk serta phoros yang bermakna gerakan. Oleh karenanya, Flagellata disimpulkan sebagai protozoa yang pergerakannya dengan menggunakan flagel (bulu cambuk). Letak flagel dapat di anterior (ujung depan sel) ataupun posterior (belakang). Flagel itu bermanfaat sebagai alat indera karena pada permukaan flagel itu ada sel-sel reseptor. Tidak hanya itu, flagel juga dipakai sebagai alat menangkap makanan pada Flagellata.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [http://peritonealmesotheliomatreatment.com/] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [http://mesotheliomatreatmentnews.com/] Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Lan_Sipenyair/912820 Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6234654

B. Ciri-ciri Falgellata

Flagellata adalah salah satu bentuk protozoa yang memiliki beberapa karakteristik yang berbeda dengan protozoa yang lain. Mengenai ciri Flagellata secara umum, meliputi :

  • Flagellata pergerakannya menggunakan bulu cambuk (flagel),
  • Flagellata adalah organisme yang hidupnya ada yang soliter ataupun berkoloni,
  • Morfogenesis (bentuk tubuh) Flagellata berbentuk polimorfik (mirip beragam bentuk morfologi), ada yang berbentuk lonjong, mirip bola, memanjang, serta yang lain,
  • Flagellata ada yang memiliki mitokondria serta ada yang tidak,
  • Tubuh Flagellata dilindungi oleh selaput fleksibel yang dimaksud pelicle, sedang sisi luarnya dilapisi selaput plasma,
  • Flagellata memiliki tubuh yang tetap walau tak mempunyai rangka luar,
  • Flagellata tidak bisa dilihat dengan mata telanjang, hingga bersifat mikroskopis,
  • Sistem reproduksi Flagellata lewat cara aseksual yakni pembelahan biner arah membujur,
  • Flagellata memperoleh nutrisi dengan berbentuk holozoik, holofilik, ataupun saprofitik.
  • Holozoik berarti Flagellata memperoleh nutrisi lewat cara mengonsumsi organisme lain yang memiliki ukuran kecil. Holofilik berarti Flagellata peroleh makanan lewat cara mensintesis makanannya sendiri dari organisme yang sudah mati, sedang saprofitik adalah karakter parasit Flagellata dengan melekat pada inangnya untuk peroleh makanan.
  • Habitat Flagellata di air tawar serta air laut,
  • Hidup secara parasit atau simbiosis mutualisme.

C. Klasifikasi dan Struktur Flagellata

stuktur flagellata

Flagellata adalah protozoa yang mempunyai macam bentuk yang dinilai bersumber pada tanda spesifik. Bersumber pada tanda itu juga susunan tubuh flagellata bisa diidentifikasi pada yang satu dengan yang lain. Tetapi, sebagai tanda tersering dalam pengklasifikasian Flagellata adalah memiliki bentuk. Nah, bila dinilai bersumber pada memiliki bentuk, Flagellata bisa dibedakan jadi berikut ini ini :

1. Fitoflagellata

Fitoflagellata adalah Flagellata yang berupa seperti tumbuhan. Flagellata kelompok ini bisa melakukan fotosintesis lantaran memiliki kromatofora/klorofil. Susunan tubuh fitoflagellata di bagian luar ada susunan pembungkus yang memiliki kandungan protein yang dimaksud pelikel yang terbentuk dari selaput plasma. Tetapi tubuh Fitoflagellata ada pula yang diselulubungi membran selulosa, seperti volvox.

Flagellata kelompok ini bisa bereproduksi secara seksual dengan konjugasi ataupun aseksual dengan membelah diri. Pencernaan makanan flagellata golongan ini bisa berbentuk holozoik, holofoik, ataupun saprofitik. Habitat paling utama Fitoflagellata bisa berbentuk peraian bersih ataupun kotor.

Fitoflagellata bisa dibedakan jadi 3 kelas, mencakup :

a. Euglenoida

Euglenoida adalah protozoa kelompok Fitoflagellata yang badannya mirip gelendong yang diselubungi pelikel. Salah satu contohnya, yakni Euglena viridis.

Euglena viridis adalah Euglenoida yang berbentuk holozoik serta holofilik. Susunan badannya yaitu meruncing pada ujung badannya dengan satu buah flagel dibagian anterior serta tumpul di bagian posteriornya. Pada ujung anterior badannya juga ada celah sempit yang meanjang ke posterior serta membuat kantong cadangan atau reservoir.

Tidak hanya itu, Euglena viridis mempunyai stigma (bintik mata berwarna gelap) yang manfaatnya itu untuk membedakan pada warna yang gelap serta jelas. Stigma bisa membedakan warna itu lantaran mempunyai himpunan pigmen yang sensitif pada sinar. Euglena viridis, umumnya memiliki ukuran mikro yakni kisaran 35-60 mikron.

b. Dinoflagellata

Dinoflagellata adalah kelompok Fitoflagellata dengan bentuk tubuh beragam, ada yang lonjong dengan warna kecoklatan ataupun kekuningan. Dinoflagellata mempunyai flagel yang letaknya di cekungan transversal yang melingkari tubuh. Tetapi, banyak spesies ini yang kehilangan flagelnya yang selanjutnya tumbuh sebagai fase vegetatif non-motil.

Contoh protozoa yang termasuk juga golongan Dinoflagellata satu diantaranya yakni Nocticula miliaris. Nocticula miliaris dilengkapi sepasang flagel dengan ukuran yang berbeda panjang. Habitat paling utama Nocticula miliaris adalah di air laut yang hidupnya berbentuk simbiosis dengan bentuk ganggang tertentu. Bila Fitoflagellata kelompok ini terkena rangsangan mekanik, Nocticula miliaris bisa mencarkan cahaya (biominense). Tidak sama dengan euglenoida, nocticula miliaris condong memiliki ukuran besar.

c. Volvocida

Volvocida adalah kelompok Fitoflagellata yang berkoloni serta berupa bulat. Contoh kelompok ini satu diantaranya adalah Volvox globator. Karakteristik Volvox yakni terbagi dalam beberapa ribu sel dengan masing-masing sel mempunyai dua flagel, inti vakuola kontraktil, stigma, kloroplas, serta eyepost.

Vakuola itu berperan keluarkan keunggulan air dari sel dan mengukur tekanan osmosis, sedang eyepost ini bertindak dalam bantu Volvox yang berkoloni berenang menuju sinar. Beberapa sel yang ada pada Volvocida bakal dikaitkan dengan benang-benang pada protoplasma yang nantinya akan membuat hubungan fisiologis.

d. Zooflagellata

Zooflagellata dikatakan sebagai protozoa paling primitif dibanding bentuk protozoa yang lain. Hal itu karena, Zooflagellata adalah protozoa yang mangalami transisi dari bentuk organisme prokariotik jadi eukariotik. Oleh karenanya, Zooflagellata adalah Flagellata yang mirip hewan serta tak mempunyai kloroplas hingga berbentuk heteretrof (tidak bisa membuahkan makanan sendiri).

Susunan tubuh Zooflagellata mirip leher porifera serta mempunyai flagel yang berperan sebagai alat gerak serta membuahkan aliran air dengan menggoyangkan flagelnya.

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