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Pengertian Ekosistem

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Pengertian ekosistem yaitu hubungan timbal balik pada unsur-unsur hayati dengan nonhayati yang membuat system ekolog. Ekosistem adalah satu hubungan yang kompleks serta mempunyai penyusun yang bermacam. Di bumi ada berbagai macam ekosistem.

Susunan Ekosistem

Satu ekosistem berdasar pada susunan serta fungsinya tersusun dari sebagian komponen seperti berikut :

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [http://peritonealmesotheliomatreatment.com/] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [http://mesotheliomatreatmentnews.com/] Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Lan_Sipenyair/912820 Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6234654

a. Komponen autotrof

autotrof datang dari kata Auto yang bermakna sendiri, serta trophikos yang bermakna “menyediakan makan”. Pengertian dari Autotrof yaitu organisme yang dapat sediakan/mensintesis makanan sendiri yang berbentuk bahan organik berbahan anorganik dengan pertolongan daya seperti matahari serta kimia. Komponen autotrof berperan sebagai produsen, misalnya tumbuh-tumbuhan hijau.

b. Komponen heterotrof

Heterotrof datang dari kata “Heteros” yang artinya tidak sama, serta trophikos yang artinya makanan).
Pengertian dari Heterotrof adalah organisme yang memakai beberapa bahan organik sebagai makanannya serta bahan itu disiapkan oleh organisme lain. Yang termasuk heterotrof yaitu manusia, hewan, jamur, serta mikroba.

c. Bahan tidak hidup (abiotik)

Bahan tidak hidup yakni komponen fisik serta kimia yang terbagi dalam tanah, air, hawa, cahaya matahari. Bahan tidak hidup adalah medium atau substrat tempat berlangsungnya kehidupan, atau lingkungan tempat hidup.

d. Pengurai (dekomposer)

Pengertian dari Pengurai yaitu organisme heterotrof yang menguraikan bahan organik yang datang dari organisme mati (bahan organik kompleks). Organisme pengurai menyerap beberapa hasil penguraian itu serta melepas beberapa bahan yang simpel yang bisa dipakai kembali oleh produsen. Termasuk juga pengurai ini yaitu bakteri serta jamur.

Beberapa macam Ekosistem

Pada dasarnya ekosistem dibedakan jadi ekosistem darat serta ekosistem perairan. Ekosistem perairan dibedakan atas ekosistem air tawar serta ekosistem air Laut.

a. Ekosistem darat

Ekosistem darat adalah ekosistem yang lingkungan fisiknya berbentuk daratan. Berdasar pada letak geografisnya (garis lintangnya), ekosistem darat dibedakan jadi sebagian bioma, yakni seperti berikut.

1. Bioma gurun

Beberapa Bioma gurun ada di daerah tropika (sepanjang garis balik) yang bersebelahan dengan padang rumput.

Tanda-tanda bioma gurun yaitu gersang serta curah hujan rendah (25 cm/th.). Suhu slang hari tinggi (dapat mendapai 45°C) hingga penguapan juga tinggi, sedang malam hari suhu begitu rendah (dapat meraih 0°C). Ketidaksamaan suhu pada siang serta malam begitu besar. Tumbuhan semusim yang ada di gurun memiliki ukuran kecil.

Diluar itu, di gurun didapati juga tumbuhan menahun berdaun seperti duri misalnya kaktus, atau tidak berdaun serta mempunyai akar panjang dan memiliki jaringan untuk menaruh air. Hewan yang hidup di gurun diantaranya rodentia, ular, kadal, katak, serta kalajengking.

2. Bioma padang rumput

Bioma ini ada di daerah yang terbentang dari daerah tropik ke subtropik. Ciri-cirinya yaitu curah hujan lebih kurang 25-30 cm per th. serta hujan turun tak teratur. Porositas (peresapan air) tinggi serta drainase (aliran air) cepat.

Tumbuhan yang ada terdiri atas tumbuhan terna (herbs) serta rumput yang keduanya bergantung pada kelembaban. Hewannya diantaranya : bison, zebra, singa, anjing liar, serigala, gajah, jerapah, kangguru, serangga, tikus serta ular

3. Bioma Rimba Basah

Bioma Rimba Basah ada di daerah tropika serta subtropik. Ciri-cirinya yaitu, curah hujan 200-225 cm per th.. Species pohon-pohon relatif banyak, macamnya tidak sama antara satu dengan yang lain bergantung letak geografisnya.

Tinggi pohon paling utama pada 20-40 m, cabang-cabang pohon tinngi serta berdaun lebat sampai membuat tudung (kanopi). Dalam rimba basah berlangsung pergantian iklim mikro (iklim yang segera ada di sekitaran organisme).

Daerah tudung cukup memperoleh cahaya matahari. Macam suhu serta kelembaban tinggi/besar ; suhu selama seharian sekitaran 25°C. Dalam rimba basah tropika kerap ada tumbuhan khas, yakni liana (rotan), kaktus, serta anggrek sebagai epifit. Hewannya diantaranya, kera, burung, badak, babi rimba, harimau, serta burung hantu.

4. Bioma hutan gugur

Bioma hutan gugur ada di daerah beriklim sedang. Ciri-cirinya yaitu curah hujan rata sepanjang th.. Ada di daerah yang mengalami empat musim (dingin, semi, panas, serta gugur). Type pohon sedikit (10 s/d 20) serta tidaklah terlalu rapat. Hewannya diantaranya rusa, beruang, ubah, bajing, burung pelatuk, serta rakoon (sebangsa luwak).

5. Bioma taiga

Bioma taiga ada di belahan bumi samping utara serta di pegunungan daerah tropik. Ciri-cirinya yaitu suhu di musim dingin rendah. Umumnya taiga adalah rimba yang tersusun atas satu spesies seperti konifer, pinus, dap semacamnya. Semak serta tumbuhan basah sedikit. Hewannya diantaranya moose, beruang hitam, ajag, serta burung-burung yang bermigrasi ke selatan pada musim gugur.

6. Bioma tundra

Bioma tundra ada di belahan bumi samping utara didalam lingkaran kutub utara serta ada di puncak-puncak gunung tinggi. Perkembangan tanaman di daerah ini cuma 60 hari. Contoh tumbuhan yang menguasai yaitu Sphagnum, liken, tumbuhan biji semusim, tumbuhan kayu yang pendek, serta rumput.

Biasanya, tumbuhannya dapat menyesuaikan dengan kondisi yang dingin. Hewan yang hidup di daerah ini ada yang menetap serta ada yang datang pada musim panas, semua berdarah panas. Hewan yang menetap mempunyai rambut atau bulu yang tidak tipis, misalnya muscox, rusa kutub, beruang kutub, serta insekta terlebih nyamuk serta lalat hitam.

b. Ekosistem Air Tawar

Ciri-ciri ekosistem air tawar diantaranya variasi suhu tak menyolok, penetrasi sinar kurang, serta dipengaruhi oleh iklim serta cuaca. Jenis tumbuhan yang paling banyak yaitu type ganggang, sedang yang lain tumbuhan biji. Nyaris semuanya filum hewan ada di air tawar. Organisme yang hidup di air tawar biasanya sudah menyesuaikan.
Adaptasi organisme air tawar yaitu seperti berikut.

Adaptasi tumbuhan

Tumbuhan yang hidup di air tawar umumnya bersel satu serta dinding selnya kuat seperti sebagian alga biru serta alga hijau. Air masuk kedalam sel sampai maksimum serta bakal berhenti sendiri. Tumbuhan tingkat tinggi, seperti teratai (Nymphaea gigantea), memiliki akar jangkar (akar sulur). Hewan serta tumbuhan rendah yang hidup di habitat air, desakan osmosisnya sama juga dengan desakan osmosis lingkungan atau isotonis.

Adaptasi hewan

Ekosistem air tawar ditempati oleh nekton. Nekton adalah hewan yang bergerak aktif dengan memakai otot yang kuat. Hewan tingkat tinggi yang hidup di ekosistem air tawar, umpamanya ikan, dalam menangani ketidaksamaan desakan osmosis lakukan osmoregulasi untuk pelihara keseimbangan air dalam badannya lewat system ekskresi, insang, serta pencernaan.

Habitat air tawar adalah penghubung habitat laut serta habitat darat. Penggolongan organisme di air bisa berdasar pada aliran daya serta pola hidup.

1. Berdasar pada aliran daya, organisme dibagi jadi autotrof (tumbuhan), serta fagotrof (makrokonsumen), yakni karnivora predator, parasit, serta saprotrof atau organisme yang hidup pada substrat beberapa bekas organisme.
2. Berdasar pada pola hidup, organisme dibedakan seperti berikut.
a. Plankton ; terdiri alas fitoplankton serta zooplankton ; umumnya melayang-layang (bergerak pasif) ikuti gerak aliran air.
b. Nekton ; hewan yang aktif berenang di air, umpamanya ikan.
c. Neuston ; organisme yang mengapung atau berenang di permukaan air atau bertempat pada permukaan air, umpamanya serangga air.
d. Perifiton ; adalah tumbuhan atau hewan yang menempel/tergantung pada tumbuhan atau benda lain, umpamanya keong.
e. Bentos ; hewan serta tumbuhan yang hidup di basic atau hidup pada endapan. Bentos bisa sessil (menempel) atau bergerak bebas, umpamanya cacing serta remis. cermati gambar dibawah ini

Ekosistem air tawar dikelompokkan jadi air tenang serta air mengalir. Termasuk juga ekosistem air tenang yaitu danau serta rawa, termasuk juga ekosistem air mengalir yaitu sungai.

1. Danau

Danau adalah suatu badan air yang menggenang serta luasnya mulai dari beberapa mtr. persegi sampai beberapa ratus mtr. persegi.

Di danau ada pembagian daerah berdasar pada penetrasi sinar matahari. Daerah yang bisa ditembus sinar matahari hingga berlangsung fotosintesis dimaksud daerah fotik. Daerah yg tidak tertembus sinar matahari dimaksud daerah afotik. Di danau juga ada daerah pergantian temperatur yang mencolok atau termoklin. Termoklin memisahkan daerah yang hangat diatas dengan daerah dingin di basic.

Komunitas tumbuhan serta hewan menyebar di danau sesuai dengan kedalaman serta jaraknya dari pinggir. Berdasar pada hal itu danau dibagi jadi 4 daerah seperti berikut.

a) Daerah litoral

Daerah ini adalah daerah dangkal. Sinar matahari menembus dengan maksimal. Air yang hangat berdekatan dengan pinggir. Tumbuhannya adalah tumbuhan air yang berakar serta daunnya ada yang mencuat ke atas permukaan air.

Komune organisme begitu bermacam termasuk juga beberapa jenis ganggang yang menempel (terutama diatom), beragam siput serta remis, serangga, krustacea, ikan, amfibi, reptilia air serta semi air seperti kura-kura serta ular, itik serta angsa, serta sebagian mamalia yang kerap mencari makan di danau.

b. Daerah limnetik

Daerah ini adalah daerah air bebas yang jauh dari pinggir serta masihlah bisa ditembus cahaya matahari. Daerah ini ditempati oleh beragam fitoplankton, termasuk juga ganggang serta sianobakteri. Ganggang berfotosintesis serta bereproduksi dengan kecepatan tinggi sepanjang musim panas serta musim semi.

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