Pengertian, Fungsi, dan Teori – Teori PERS

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Net Price: $9,459/yr Score: 82.13 See our methodology page for more information about how we calculated this ranking.* *For this ranking, we added an extra feature to the standard methodology. Because we wanted to focus specifically on “speed” rather than general measures of quality, we custom-designed a scale to rank schools based on this highly desirable “fast factor.” Specifically, we researched each online college and asked ourselves the following questions: Does the school offer bachelor’s degrees that one could complete in less than four years? What about associate’s degrees in less than two years? Are there many short certificate options for students who want to quickly augment their skills in an established field? Are there “accelerated” degree paths and options for students who want to earn a combined bachelor’s/master’s degree? Does the school offer credit for life/work experience and past academic coursework in order to help students move ahead on their degree path? Does the school offer multiple course formats so that students have the option to start several times a year and/or to choose between classes of varying lengths? But don’t worry – we still considered graduation rate and tuition costs as well! We hope this has been helpful in providing information about fast online degrees from accredited colleges. There are many fast online degree programs available, and we encourage you to do a broad search to find the program that’s best for you. THIS CONCLUDES OUR RANKING OF THE BEST VALUES IN FAST ONLINE DEGREES. Sources: College Navigator By CVO Staff Published March 2016

Pengertian, Fungsi, dan Teori – Teori PERS Selamat datang di Lahiya, situs (blog) sederhana yang berbagi ilmu dan pengetahuan dengan penuh keikhlasan, di Kesempatan ini kami bakal sharing ilmu dan pengetahuan mengenai PERS, dan beberapa poin utama yang bakal kami ulas yaitu Pengertian PERS, Teori – Teori PERS, serta Manfaat PERS. Mudah-mudahan ilmunya bisa bermanfaat, ya.

Pengertian Pers

Secara etimologis, kata Pers (Belanda) atau Press (Inggris), atau Presse (Prancis) semua berasal dari bahasa latin, Perssare dari kata Premere yang memiliki arti “Tekan” atau “Cetak”. Secara terminologis, Pers yaitu media massa cetak atau media cetak.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [] Article Source: Article Source:

Sebelum memahami lebih lanjut pengertian pers secara umum, ada baiknya sahabat sekalian menyimak pendapat para ahli berikut ini:

UU No. 40 tahun 1999 mengenai Pers

Menurut undang-undang “Pers yaitu lembaga sosial dan lahan komunikasi massa yang melakukan kegiatan jurnalisktik yang meliputi mencari, memperoleh, memiliki, menyimpan, mengolah serta menyampaikan informasi baik berbentuk tulisan, suara, gambar, suara dan gambar, serta data dan grafik ataupun dalam bentuk yang lain dengan memakai media cetak, media elektronik, serta semua bentuk saluran yang tersedia.

R Eep Saefulloh Fatah

Pers adalah pilar ke empat untuk demokrasi (the fourth estate of democracy) serta memiliki fungsi yang penting dalam membangun kepercayaan, kredibilitas, bahkan juga legitimasi pemerintah.

Oemar Seno Adji

Pers dalam arti sempit, yakni penyiaran-penyiaran fikiran, ide, atau berita-berita dengan kata tertulis.

Pers dalam arti luas, yakni memasukkan di dalamnya semua media massa communication yang memancarkan fikiran serta perasaan seseorang baik dengan kalimat tertulis ataupun dengan lisan.

Kamus Umum Bahasa Indonesia

Pers memiliki arti:

  • Alat cetak untuk mencatak buku atau surat kabar
  • Alat untuk menjepit atau memadatkan
  • Surat kabar dan majalah yang berisi berita
  • Orang yang bekerja dibidang persurat kabaran

Kustadi Suhandang

Pers yaitu seni atau keterampilan mencari, mengumpulkan, mengolah, menyusun, serta menyajikan, berita mengenai peristiwa yang terjadi sehari-hari secara indah, dalm rangka memenuhi semua kebutuhan hati nurani khalayak.  

Wilbur Schramm

Dalam bukunya Four Theories of the pers, ia menyampaikan 4 teori terbesar pers yakni the authotarian, the libertarian, the social responsibility serta the soviet communist theory. Ke empat teori itu merujuk pada satu pengertian pers sebagai pengamat, guru, serta komunitas yang menyampaikan pandangannya mengenai beberapa hal yang mengemuka ditengah-tengah masyarakat.


Pers sebagai the extended man, yakni yang menghubungkan satu tempat dengan tempat lain serta peristiwa satu dengan peristiwa lain pada momen yang bersamaan

Raden Mas Djokomono

Pers adalah yang membentuk pendapat umum lewat tulisan dalam surat kabar. Gagasannya ini yang dapat membakar semangat para pejuang dalam memperjuangkan hak-hak bangsa indonsesia masa-masa penjajahan Belanda.

Gamle dan Gamle

Pers yaitu bagian komunikasi antara manuasia (human communication), yang berarti, media merupakan saluran atau sarana dalam memperluas serta memperjauh jangkauan proses penyampaian pesan antar manusia.

Dari beberapa pendapat ahli dan undang-undang bisa diambil kesimpulan kalau Pers yaitu Media atau Sarana atau instansi untuk melakukan kegiatan jurnalistik yang membentuk pendapat umum dalam bentuk apa pun hingga bisa membantu memperluas jangkauan proses penyampaian informasi serta komunikasi dan memiliki fungsi yang perlu dalam membangaun kepercayaan, kredibilitas, bahkan juga legitimasi pemerintah.

Teori-teori Pers (The Four Theories of Press)

Wilbur Scrhamm, Fred S. Siebert, serta Theodore Peterson dalam buku mereka yang berjudul Four Theories of the Press menyebutkan bahwa pers didunia saat ini bisa dikategorikan menjadi empat, berikut ini teori-teorinya:

Teori Pers Otoritarian

Teori ini muncul di iklim otoritarian, akhir jaman Renaisans pada abad 16 dan 17, setelah ditemukannya mesin cetak. Pers yang mensupport serta menjadi kepanjangan tangan kebijakan pemerintah yang tengah berkuasa serta melayani negara. Teori ini muncul setelah mesin cetak modern ditemukan dan menjadi dasar perkembangan pers komunis soviet. Teori ini berasumsi bahwa raja atau penguasa merupakan pemilik kebenaran lantaran mereka mempunyai hubungan yang amat dekat dengan Tuhan. Kebenaran bukan datang dari masyarakat, melainkan dari orang-orang bijak yang menuntun serta mengarahkan pengikutnya. Oleh karenanya, tiap orang yang menentang maupun menyangsikan ideologi dari penguasa bisa dikenai hukuman. Beberapa cara yang bisa dikerjakan untuk mengontrol pers ada tiga, yakni menyensor materi yang bakal dicetak atau ditayangkan, menyogok editor supaya mau mengikuti kemauan pemerintah, dan meneror pers dengan hukuman penjara.

Plato yang merupakan salah satu dari pelopor teori otoritarian berasumsi bahwa negara bakal maju jika di pimpin serta dipegang oleh orang-orang bijak seperti hakim. Ketika terjadi perpecahan yang rentan terjadi, bisa diminimalisir oleh orang itu. Pers di jaman ini juga jadi sangat pasif. Mereka cuma dipakai sebagai alat untuk mengemukakan informasi mengenai kebijakan pemerintah untuk mensupport posisi kepemimpinannya sendiri. Hingga pers kehilangan fungsinya sebagai pengawas pemerintahan dan cuma mengabdi pada kepentingan penguasa. Serta yang boleh mempunyai pers hanya kelompok atau orang tertentu yang memperoleh ijin khusus dari penguasa tersebut.

Teori Pers Libertarian

Teori ini disebut juga dengan teori kebebasan pers, dimana pers menuntut kebebasan yang seutuhnya. Teori ini mengungkapkan bahwa manusia udah bisa membedakan mana yang benar serta mana yang salah, mana yang baik serta yang buruk. Kebenaran bukan lagi milik penguasa, melainkan merupakan hak asasi manusia untuk mencarinya. Oleh karenanya, disini pers berperan sebagai mitra untuk mencari kebenaran lewat cara memberikan bukti serta alasan untuk landasan dalam mengawasi pemerintahan dan menentukan sikap. Hingga pers sendiri mempunyai tujuan untuk menemukan kebenaran, memberi informasi, menafsirkan, serta menghibur masyarakat.

Munculnya teori ini juga dilandasi oleh bebrapa anggapan dasar filosofis sebagai berikut ini:

Hakikat manusia

Manusia mempunyai pemikiran yang rasional serta mempunyai maksud sendiri, dan dapat membuat keputusan. Kemampuannya dipakai untuk berpikir serta mengingat, sedangkan pengalamannya dipakai untuk membuat keputusan.

Hakikat masyarakat

Masyarakat mempunyai maksud untuk menciptakan kebahagiaan serta kesejahteraan manusia. Sedangkan fungsinya yaitu untuk memajukan kepentingan anggota serta menciptakan perlindungan supaya masyarakat tidak mengambil alih peran utama serta menjadi tujuan itu sendiri.

Hakikat negara

Negara menyediakan lingkungan untuk masyarakat serta individu supaya mereka bisa memakai kemampuannya untuk mencapai tujuan.

Hakikat pengetahuan dan kebenaran

Manusia di beri kemampuan untuk membedakan mana yang benar serta mana yang salah untuk memperoleh kebenaran. Sedangkan, kebenaran itu sendiri yaitu suatu hal yang bisa ditemukan serta diperlihatkan pada manusia lain untuk diperdebatkan dan melalui musyawarah akan dapat mengakhiri perdebatan serta hasilnya bisa di terima oleh akal.

Ada tiga hal yang mengakibatkan pers sangat menentang adanya proses penyensoran, yakni sensor melanggar hak alamiah manusia untuk berekspresi dengan bebas, sensor dapat menguntungkan salah satu pihak dengan mengorbankan kepentingan masyarakat dan sensor menghalangi masyarakat untuk mencari kebenaran.

Teori Pers Tanggung Jawab Sosial

Teori ini muncul pada abad ke-20 di Amerika Serikat. Anggapan yang memicu teori ini adalah bahwa kebebasan itu juga mengandung tanggung jawab yang sebanding, dimana pers mempunyai tanggung jawab untuk menginformasikan, mendidik, serta memajukan masyarakat. Dan disini, media berperan dalam mengindikasikan suatu cerminan mengenai keanekaragaman dalam masyarakat dan juga sebagai akses untuk melihat dari beragam sudut pandang. Hingga, opini masyarakat, norma, serta reaksi konsumen lah yang menjadi kontrol atas kinerja pers. Tidak hanya itu, tak jarang juga terjadi munculnya perseteruan yang bisa membawa masyarakat ke forum diskusi untuk menyelesaikan sebuah permasalahan.


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