Pengertian, Fungsi, dan Unsur Seni Musik

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Pengertian, Fungsi, dan Unsur Seni Musik Selamat datang di Lahiya, situs (blog) sederhana yang berbagi ilmu dan pengetahuan dengan penuh keikhlasan. Dan, pada kesempatan kali ini, kami bakal sharing pengetahuan mengenai Pengertian, Fungsi dan Unsur – Unsur Musik.

Semua orang tentu mengetahui yang namanya musik, terkecuali untuk beberapa sahabat kita yang tidak dapat mendengar suara atau tuna rungu. Ketika satu suara keluar dari sebuah instrumen dengan membuat irama yang indah serta enak untuk didengar, bisa dikatakan itu yaitu musik. Sobat-sobat mungkin udah dapat dibilang mengenal apakah itu musik dan beberapa genre terkenal seperti pop, rock, jazz dan sebagainya. Namun, apakah beberapa sahabat juga tahu beberapa genre musik yang lain, bahkan juga pengertian dan fungsinya musik yang sesungguhnya? Jika belum, mari disimak penjelasan musik yang lengkap menurut kami. Langsung saja!

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Pengertian Musik

Istilah musik datang dari bahasa Yunani yakni mousikos, yang di ambil dari salah satu nama dewa Yunani. Mousikos dilambangkan sebagai suatu dewa keindahan serta menguasai bagian seni serta keilmuan.

Untuk lebih jelas tentang pengertian dari musik, berikut ini ada beberapa referensi terpercaya yang pernah menerangkan apa itu musik. Berikut ini pengertian musik di jabarkan dalam beberapa versi:

  • Dalam Kata Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia musik bisa disimpulkan ilmu atau seni membuat suara atau nada dalam urutan, paduan, serta hubungan temporal untuk menghasilkan komposisi (suara) yang memiliki kesatuan serta kesinambungan.
  • Menurut Wikipedia pengertian musik yakni suara yang disusun demikian rupa hingga memiliki kandungan irama, lagu, serta keharmonisan terlebih suara yang dihasilkan dari alat-alat yang bisa menghasilkan irama.
  • Pendapat Jamalus bahwa seni musik yaitu suatu hasil karya seni berwujud bunyi dalam bentuk lagu atau komposisi yang mengungkapkan fikiran serta perasaan penciptanya lewat unsur-unsur pokok musik yakni irama, melodi, harmoni, serta bentuk atau struktur lagu dan ekspresi sebagai sebuah kesatuan.
  • Aristoteles menyampaikan bahwa musik adalah curahan kekuatan tenaga penggambaran yang datang dari gerakan rasa dalam suatu rentetan suara (melodi) yang memiliki irama.
  • Serta menurut David Ewen, musik yaitu ilmu dan pengetahuan serta seni mengenai kombinasi ritmik dari beberapa nada, baik vokal ataupun instrumental, yang mencakup melodi serta harmoni sebagai ekspresi dari segala suatu hal yang mau diungkapkan terutama segi emosional.
  • Menurut pakar perkamusan (lexicographer) musik adalah: ”Ilmu serta seni dari gabungan ritmis beberapa nada, vokal ataupun instrumental, yang melibatkan melodi serta harmoni untuk mengekspresikan apa saja yang memungkinkan, tetapi khususnya bersifat emosional.

Dari beberapa pendapat diatas bisa diambil kesimpulan kalau musik yaitu salah satu pengetahuan atau bagian seni yang berupa nada/bunyi/suara yang terkombinasi dalam urutan yang memiliki kesatuan irama, melodi, harmoni yang bisa menggambarkan perasaan penciptanya terlebih dalam segi emosional.

Fungsi Musik

Musik adalah satu elemen yang penting dalam kehidupan manusia. Sejak dahulu kala musik udah memegang peranan dalam beberapa fungsi berdasarkan jenis dari musik tersebut. Dari beragam jenis musik itu, fungsi musik bisa digolongkan dalam beberapa sisi yakni sebagai berikut ini:

Musik Sebagai Sarana Ekspresi Diri

Seorang seniman musik semakin lebih gampang berekspresi atau mengungkapkan perasaannya melalui musik. Di samping untuk memperlihatkan bakatnya, pengungkapan perasaan melalui musik akan lebih gampang di terima. Terlebih apabila musik itu berupa vokal yang berisi kalimat yang tersusun bagus serta gampang dipahami. Disertai dengan alunan beberapa nada yang mewakili ekspresi yang bakal dikeluarkan. Contohnya, jika akan berekspresi sedih, nada yang dimainkan berbentuk nada yang bertempo lambat serta halus. Demikian sebaliknya, apabila nada itu cepat serta menggelora biasanya mewakili ekspresi senang serta bahagia.

Musik Sebagai Sarana Hiburan

Musik amat efektif dalam menghibur. Selama sebuah musik itu dianggap indah, udah pasti musik itu bisa menghibur. Seseorang bahkan membutuhkan musik untuk menghibur diri saat tengah jemu maupun sedih. Lebih dari menghibur, musik dapat juga melalaikan manusia dari kehidupan setiap harinya.

Musik Sebagai Sarana Terapi

Musik sebagai therapy awalnya di perkenalkan pada perang dunia ke-II untuk menyembuhkan korban perang. Saat ini musik banyak digunakan untuk therapy penyakit mental atau kelumpuhan organ tubuh. Musik dapat juga bermanfaat untuk menyegarkan kembali system kerja otak sesudah lama dipakai saat bekerja.

Musik Sebagai Sarana Upacara

Musik di Indonesia, pastinya akan senantiasa berkaitan erat dengan upacara-upacara tertentu seperti perkawinan, kelahiran, kematian, dan upacara keagamaan serta kenegaraan. Di beberapa daerah, bunyi dari suatu alat musik dipercaya mempunyai kemampuan magis.

Musik Sebagai Sarana Komersial

Untuk beberapa seniman musik atau musisi, musik adalah salah satu sumber pendapatan. Mereka merekam hasil karya mereka dalam bentuk pita kaset atau CD. Lantas karya mereka bakal di jual ke pasaran. Dari hasil penjualannya ini mereka mendapatkan pendapatan untuk memenuhi keperluan hidup. Tidak hanya dalam media kaset serta CD. Beberapa musisi juga melakukan pertunjukan yang dipungut biaya. Musik juga sering dikontrak sebagai pengiring suatu film atau biasa disebut dengan OST (Original Soundtrack). Biasanya musik yang di ambil sebagai OST memilki keterkaitan dengan film berbentuk persamaan narasi yang bisa melukiskan isi dari film itu. Bahkan juga musik juga kerapkali dipakai sebagai OST dari suatu Iklan, baik itu ditelevisi ataupun radio.

Musik Sebagai Sarana Tari

Musik selalu cocok apabila dikaitkan dengan tarian. Keduanya sama-sama berhubungan dengan adanya persamaan pola serta ritme satu sama lainnya, sebuah tarian tanpa diiringi irama musik akan terasa hampa (kosong) serta menyulitkan untuk sang penari. Saat penari melakukan gerak tarinya diperlukan tempo serta ritme supaya gerakannya. Di Indonesia, bunyi-bunyian atau musik di ciptakan oleh masyarakat untuk mengiringi tarian-tarian daerah. Oleh sebab itu, rata-rata tarian daerah di Indonesia cuma dapat diiringi oleh musik daerahnya sendiri. Tentunya diluar negeri juga demikian. Seperti dansa, balet dan sebagainya.

Musik Sebagai Sarana Pendidikan

Sebagai media pendidikan, musik dipakai dalam proses evaluasi di sekolah. Musik dipakai untuk menciptakan rasa cinta tanah air pada siswa-siswanya lewat lagu-lagu perjuangan. Tidak cuma itu, lagu daerah dapat juga dipakai untuk pendidikan siswa dalam hal menumbuhkan sikap toleransi terhadap ketidaksamaan suku, ras serta agama. Dalam pendidikan, musik dapat juga dipakai sebagai sarana pengembangan diri siswa. Musik dapat juga membentuk kepribadian bagus untuk seseorang. Seperti yang dikatakan oleh Hatta, kalau musik bisa menanamkan perasaan halus serta budi yang halus dalam jiwa manusia. Dengan musik, jiwa lebih memiliki rasa akan harmoni serta irama. Kedua-duanya yaitu landasan yang baik untuk menghidupkan rasa keadilan. Tetapi dalam pendidikan musik, mesti dijauhkan lagu-lagu yang melemahkan jiwa dan gampang menyebabkan nafsu buruk.

Musik Sebagai Sarana Komunikasi

Di beberapa tempat di Indonesia, bunyi-bunyi instrumen tertentu yang mempunyai arti tertentu juga untuk anggota kelompok masyarakatnya. Bunyi- bunyian itu mempunyai pola ritme tertentu yang menandai bahwa ada sebuah peristiwa atau aktivitas yang mau diinformasikan ke masyarakat. Instrumen yang umum dipakai dalam masyarakat Indonesia yaitu seperti kentongan, bedug di masjid, serta lonceng di gereja.

Musik Sebagai Sarana Kreativitas

Kreatif adalah karakter yang dilekatkan pada diri manusia yang dihubungkan dengan kemampuan atau daya untuk menciptakan. Karakter kreativitas ini selalu dibutuhkan untuk mengiringi tingkah laku manusia dalam rangka memenuhi kebutuhannya.

Unsur – Unsur Musik

Berikut ini adalah unsur – unsur dari sebuah musik:

Melodi

Melodi yaitu tingkatan tinggi-rendah serta panjang-pendeknya nada dalam musik. Dalam satu musik melodi terdengar seperti nada yang seakan bergerak menuju puncak dan lantas kembali pada keadaan sebelumnya. Melodi terdiri dari pitch, durasi serta tone. Pitch juga biasa disebut dengan timbre atau warna suara. Pitch yakni suatu hal yang mengatur rangkaian not, yang dilambangkan dengan alfabet A-G. Not-not itu jadi melodi dalam selang waktu khusus atau disebut dengan durasi. Not itu dapat dihasilkan dari berbagai alat musik dengan warna suara yang tidak sama atau di kenal dengan nama tone.

Ritme

Ritme (irama) adalah rangkaian gerak yang beraturan serta jadi unsur dasar dari musik. Ritme terbentuk dari sekumpulan bunyi serta diam panjang pendeknya dalam waktu yang bermaca-macam, membuat pola irama serta bergerak menurut pulsa dalam tiap ayunan birama (Jamalus, 1998 : 7). Irama berfungsi untuk mengatur dari suara serta hening. Unsur dari irama mencakup not, ketukan serta tempo. Supaya irama dalam musik tetap teratur, musik itu mesti sesuai dengan tempo yang terdiri dari not-not yang dimainkan dalam satu ketukan. Tempo disini berfungsi supaya kecepatan saat memainkan musik bisa diatur serta disesuaikan.

Harmoni

Harmoni yaitu cabang ilmu dan pengetahuan musik yang mengulas serta membicarakan tentang keindahan komposisi musik (Banoe, 2003 : 180). Harmoni adalah bagian yang melibatkan suara atau kunci (kord) yang berjalan terus-menerus. Dalam musik harmoni bakal terlihat saat ada keseimbangan pada momen penekanan serta pelepasan. Harmoni tersusun dari interval, kunci dan skala. Interval yakni jarak yang ada antara dua buah nada. Kunci adalah rangkaian not yang mengatur keharmonisan sebuah melodi dalam interval tertentu. Serta skala yaitu sekumpulan not bertindak sebagai kerangka dari sebuah musik. Skala juga berperan sebagai acuan untuk menentukan not yang bakal dimainkan pada musik.

Dinamik

Dinamik yaitu tingkatan keras serta lembutnya cara memainkan musik, keras serta lembut ini dibutuhkan supaya musik tidak terdengan monoton atau datar. Kondisi keras serta lembut itu mempunyai arti sendiri didalam permainan musik, seperti Piano (p = lembut), Pianissimo (pp = amat lembut), Mezzo piano (mp = setengah lembut), Mezzo forte (mf = setengah keras). Forte (f = keras), Fortissimo (ff = amat keras). Tidak hanya itu masih ada tanda dinamik yang lain yang dipakai yakni crescendo serta decrescendo. Crescendo mengisyaratkan supaya musik dimainkan dengan keras. Demikian sebaliknya, decrescendo mengisyaratkan supaya dimainkan dengan lembut.

Tangga nada

Tangga nada yaitu urutan dari sebuah nada yang disusun seperti tangga. Tangga nada dibagi jadi dua, yakni tangga nada diatonik serta pentatonik. Tangga nada diatonik yakni tangga nada yang terdiri dari 7 nada berdasarkan interval-interval yang sudah ditetapkan. Sedangkan tangga nada pentatonis yakni tangga nada yang cuma terdiri dari 5 nada pokok. Sebuah tangga nada, tentu ada satu nada dasar yang diikuti oleh beberapa nada yang lain yang dapat lebih rendah atau lebih tinggi dengan pola interval tertentu, hingga terbentuk bentuk khas sendiri.

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