Pengertian, Fungsi, Mekanisme Kerja Hormon Pada Manusia

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Although it offers nearly 200 degrees and certificates, the school’s most popular programs include business administration, criminal justice, general studies, sports and health sciences, psychology, and homeland security. With courses starting on the first Monday of every month and lasting either 8 or 16 weeks, there’s no need to wait for a new semester to begin, earning APUS a top spot in our fast online degree rankings. Net Price: $9,572/yr Score: 70.60 American InterContinental University Fast Online Degrees Accredited, fast online degrees are in abundance at AIU, which offers programs in everything from business to web design. 3. AMERICAN INTERCONTINENTAL UNIVERSITY-ONLINE Website In addition to the career-focused fields found at other online schools – business, criminal justice, IT, education, and healthcare – AIU also has several degrees in design fields, making it a great choice for students who want to blend vocational skills and artistic vision. 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Experienced designers can also take quick professional development courses in Photoshop and other specific skills without pursuing an entire degree. This makes Sessions a standout among the many online colleges that offer more traditional programs in professional fields like business, teaching, or information technology. While Sessions offers numerous certificates and associates degrees, students can also earn credits that transfer to bachelor’s degrees at Excelsior College. All courses have three different start dates a year – January, May and September – giving you plenty of flexibility when planning your schedule. Net Price: $12,352/yr Score: 74.74 American Broadcasting School Fast Online Degrees The American Broadcasting School is #1 on this fast online degree ranking and undoubtedly the best option for aspiring journalists. 1. AMERICAN BROADCASTING SCHOOL Website Granting an inexpensive, fast online degree in radio broadcasting, this school offers a fast track to careers in news, sports, talk, or music radio, as well as other creative voice opportunities. The entire program takes just over eight months to complete (71% of students graduate), uses exclusively one-on-one instruction, and allows you to work at your own pace. You’ll get all the software and equipment you need (as long as you provide your own computer) and personalized vocal coaching. Starting in your very first week, you’ll have the opportunity to record your own radio shows and receive live critiques from professional instructors. Because success in broadcasting requires more than just talent, you’ll also learn digital production, marketing, and other tools of the broadcasting trade. Looking to enroll quickly? You can begin on any Monday of the year! Net Price: $9,459/yr Score: 82.13 See our methodology page for more information about how we calculated this ranking.* *For this ranking, we added an extra feature to the standard methodology. Because we wanted to focus specifically on “speed” rather than general measures of quality, we custom-designed a scale to rank schools based on this highly desirable “fast factor.” Specifically, we researched each online college and asked ourselves the following questions: Does the school offer bachelor’s degrees that one could complete in less than four years? What about associate’s degrees in less than two years? Are there many short certificate options for students who want to quickly augment their skills in an established field? Are there “accelerated” degree paths and options for students who want to earn a combined bachelor’s/master’s degree? Does the school offer credit for life/work experience and past academic coursework in order to help students move ahead on their degree path? Does the school offer multiple course formats so that students have the option to start several times a year and/or to choose between classes of varying lengths? But don’t worry – we still considered graduation rate and tuition costs as well! We hope this has been helpful in providing information about fast online degrees from accredited colleges. There are many fast online degree programs available, and we encourage you to do a broad search to find the program that’s best for you. THIS CONCLUDES OUR RANKING OF THE BEST VALUES IN FAST ONLINE DEGREES. Sources: College Navigator By CVO Staff Published March 2016

Pengertian, Fungsi, Mekanisme Kerja Hormon Pada Manusia Selamat datang di lahiya, situs (blog) sederhana yang berbagi ilmu dan pengetahuan dengan penuh keikhlasan. Dan, pada kesempatan kali ini, kami bakal sharing pengetahuan mengenai Pengertian Hormon, Mekanisme Kerja Hormon, dan Kelenjar yang Menghasilkan Hormon. Pembahasan kali ini mungkin akan sedikit panjang, tapi kami akan menampilkan banyak gambar untuk memperjelas pembahasan.

Hormon yaitu senyawa organik yang dihasilkan oleh kelenjar endokrin. Kelenjar endokrin disebut dengan juga kelenjar buntu lantaran tidak mempunyai saluran tersendiri. Sekresi kelenjar endokrin disebut dengan sebagai sekresi internal. Hormon yang dihasilkan dikembalikan ke darah serta beredar mengikuti aliran darah. Hormon itu bakal memengaruhi organ target.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [] Article Source: Article Source:

Dengan hal tersebut bisa dikatakan kalau system endokrin bisa berkomunikasi dengan jaringan atau organ-organ target yang letaknya jauh dari kelenjar.

Tidak seperti system saraf, dampak hormon berjalan lambat, namun lantaran hormon memengaruhi metabolisme sel, pengaruhnya pada jaringan serta organ menetap. Tidak hanya dihasilkan dari kelenjar endokrin, ada juga hormon yang dihasilkan dari beberapa sel saraf tertentu yang disebut dengan sel neurosekretori. Hormon yang dihasilkan oleh sel saraf itu diberi nama neurohormon.

Hormon di produksi berdasarkan mekanisme kerja umpan balik. Artinya kekurangan atau kelebihan hormon tertentu bisa memengaruhi produksi hormon lain.

Ketidaksamaan system saraf dengan system hormone

System saraf

  • Sinyal yang dibawa bersifat impuls saraf
  • Impuls saraf berjalan cepat lantaran dihantarkan lewat serabut saraf
  • Organ target biasanya khusus, contoh bila kaki terkena paku, impuls khusus dari kaki kembali lagi ke kaki
  • Respon organ target berjalan cepat

System hormon

  • Sinyal yang dibawa bersifat cairan hormon
  • Dampak hormon berjalan lambat lantaran dihantarkan lewat system peredaran darah
  • Organ target ada yang khusus ada juga yang umum. Contohnya hormon vasopressin punya pengaruh pada penyerapan air di ginjal, sedang hormon perkembangan punya pengaruh ke semua tubuh.
  • Respon organ target ada yang cepat, ada yang lambat.

Didalam tubuh manusia ada 9 kelenjar endokrin yang berfungsi menghasilkan hormon, yakni hipotalamus, pituitari, pineal, tiroid, tiroid, paratiroid, kelenjar adrenal, pankreas, ovarium (pada wanita), serta testis (pada lelaki).


Hipotalamus terdapat di otak depan serta berfungsi penting dalam penyusunan homeostasis. Hipotalamus memiliki beberapa sel saraf khusus yang menghasilkan neurohormon. Neurohormon ada yang berfungsi sebagai faktor pencetus serta ada juga yang berfungsi sebagai faktor penghambat. Hormon yang berfungsi sebagai faktor pencetus bakal dihasilkan serta dibawa lewat pembuluh darah portahipotalamohipofisis menuju ke hipofisis. Bila hormon itu tiba di hipofisis, hipofisis bakal mengeluarkan hormon yang sesuai.

Berikut ini yaitu hormon yang dihasilkan hipotalamus bersama manfaatnya:

  • Hormon pencetus kortikotropin atau Corticotrophic Releasing Factor (CRF) à Merangsang lobus anterior hipofisis supaya mensekresi Adenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
  • Hormon pencetus hormon perkembangan atau Growth Hormone Releasing Faktor (GRF) à Merangsang pengeluaran hormon perkembangan Somatotrophic Hormone (STH)
  • Hormon pencetus tirotropik atau Tyrotrophic Releasing Factor (TRF) à Merangsang lobus anterior supaya mensekresi Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
  • Hormon pencetus hormon FSH atau Follicle Stimulating Hormone Releasing Factor (FRF) à Merangsang lobus anterior mensekresi FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
  • Hormon pencetus hormon LH atau Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Factor (LRF) à Merangsang lobus anterior mensekresi LH (Luteinizing Hormone)

Neurohormon yang bekerja sebagai faktor penghalang, contohnya Prolactin Inhibiting Factor (PIF) berfungsi untuk menghalangi pengeluaran prolaktin. Hipotalamus juga menghasilkan hormon yang bukanlah faktor pencetus. Hormon ini diangkut oleh neurit beberapa sel neurosekresi kedalam hipofisis bagian belakang. Hormon-hormon itu yaitu vasopressin (memengaruhi pengeluaran air pada urine) serta oksitosin (memengaruhi kontraksi uterus).

Hipofisis (Kelenjar Pituitari)

Kelenjar hipofisis terdapat di dasar otak besar. Kelenjar hipofisis dibagi jadi 3 bagian (lobus), yakni untuk anterior, tengah, serta posterior. Lobus tengah cuma ada pada ketika kita bayi, kemudian bakal cuma tinggal sisa saat udah beranjak dewasa. Kelenjar hipofisis memegang fungsi penting dalam koordinasi kimia tubuh, hingga kelenjar ini disebut dengan “master of glands” lantaran sekresinya dipakai untuk mengontrol aktivitas kelenjar endokrin yang lain. Kelenjar endokrin lain baru mensekresi hormon setelah memperoleh kiriman sinyal (berwujud hormon) dari kelenjar hipofisis.

Kelenjar Pineal

Kelenjar pineal terdapat di otak tengah. Kelenjar ini menghasilkan hormon yang bernama melatonin. Konsentrasi melatonin dalam darah naik-turun sesuai sama siklus diurnal. Kandungan melatonin tertinggi terjadi pada malam hari hingga bikin kita mengantuk ; sedangkan pada siang hari kandungannya cuma sedikit. Kelenjar pineal disangka membantu mengatur siklus proses fisiologi siang serta malam hingga memengaruhi pola tidur, selera makan, serta suhu tubuh.

Kelenjar Tiroid

Kelenjar tiroid atau kelenjar gondok terbagi dalam dua lobus yang terdapat di bagian kanan serta kiri trakea. Sekresi kelenjar tiroid diatur oleh satu hormon dari lobus anterior kelenjar hipofisis, yakni hormon tirotropik. Kelenjar tiroid menghasilkan hormon tiroksin yang berfungsi mengatur reaksi metabolisme karbohidrat, mengatur pemakaian O2 serta CO2, memengaruhi perubahan tubuh serta mental.

Kekurangan hormon tiroksin pada masa-masa anak-anak bisa mengakibatkan kretinisme, yakni terjadinya perkembangan kerdil serta kemunduran mental. Kekurangan homo tiroksin pada orang dewasa mengakibatkan mixudema, dengan tanda-tanda proses metabolisme mengalami penurunan, berat tubuh bertambah, gerakan lamban, memikirkan dan berbicara lamban, kulit tebal, serta rambut rontok. Keunggulan tiroksin pada orang dewasa bakal menyebabkan penyakit “Grave’s disease” atau penyakit gondok eksoftalmus. Tanda tanda penyakit itu yaitu mata menonjol, gampang gugup, denyut nadi bertambah, mata lebar, nadi serta napas cepat dan tidak teratur, serta insomnia. Tidak hanya nafsu makan bertambah namun diiringi dengan menurunnya berat badan lantaran meningkatnya metabolisme serta masalah pencernaan.

Tiroksin memiliki kandungan banyak iodin, kekurangan iodin dalam waktu lama bisa menyebabkan pembengkakan kelenjar tiroid. Pembengkakan ini terjadi lantaran kelenjar mesti berusaha keras supaya produksi tiroksin terjamin. Mengakibatkan kelenjar gondok mengembang dan nampaklah penyakit gondok. Penyakit ini kerapkali didapati di beberapa daerah yang kekurangan iodin, contohnya daerah pegunungan atau daerah perbukitan. Pencegahan bisa dilakukan dengan konsumsi makanan yang memiliki kandungan cukup iodin, contohnya ikan laut, atau memakai garam beriodin.

Kelenjar Anak Gondok (Paratiroid)

Di tiap segi kelenjar tiroid ada sepasang kelenjar kecil, yakni kelenjar anak gondok atau disebut juga dengan dengan kelenjar paratiroid. Kelenjar ini berfungsi untuk menghasilkan hormon paratiroid untuk mengatur kandungan ion fosfat (PO4) serta ion kalsium (Ca) dalam darah serta tulang. Kerja hormon ini sinergis dengan vitamin D baca juga : Pengertian serta Beberapa jenis Vitamin.

Bila seseorang mengalami defisiensi (kekurangan) hormon paratiroid bakal menyebabkan tetani, dengan tanda-tanda kejang pada tangan serta kaki, gelisah, sulit tidur, serta terasa kesemutan.

Kebalikannya juga, keunggulan hormon ini bakal menyebabkan kelainan juga, yakni mengakibatkan kalsium serta fosforus dalam tulang bakal di keluarkan serta dialirkan kedalam serum darah hingga pasien bakal gampang untuk mengalami patah tulang, dan dalam urine bakal mengandung banyak kapur serta fosforus, hingga memperbesar peluang untuk menyebabkan batu ginjal yang bila udah parah bisa menyebabkan kegagalan ginjal.

Kelenjar Anak Ginjal (Adrenal)

Kelenjar anak ginjal (kelenjar adrenal) atau kelenjar suprarenal terdapat diatas (kutub) tiap ginjal. Kelenjar ini terdiri dari sisi luar berwarna kekuningan yang disebut dengan korteks serta bagian dalam yang disebut dengan medula. Tiap bagian itu menghasilkan hormon yang tidak sama.

Bagian Medula

Hormon adrenalin (epinefrin) à mempercepat kerja jantung, menaikkan tekanan darah, mempercepat pengubahan glikogen jadi glukosa pada hati, menaikkan gula darah, serta merubah glikogen jadi asam laktat pada otot.


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