Pengertian Konflik Sosial: Contoh, Jenis, & Faktor Penyebab

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Net Price: $9,459/yr Score: 82.13 See our methodology page for more information about how we calculated this ranking.* *For this ranking, we added an extra feature to the standard methodology. Because we wanted to focus specifically on “speed” rather than general measures of quality, we custom-designed a scale to rank schools based on this highly desirable “fast factor.” Specifically, we researched each online college and asked ourselves the following questions: Does the school offer bachelor’s degrees that one could complete in less than four years? What about associate’s degrees in less than two years? Are there many short certificate options for students who want to quickly augment their skills in an established field? Are there “accelerated” degree paths and options for students who want to earn a combined bachelor’s/master’s degree? Does the school offer credit for life/work experience and past academic coursework in order to help students move ahead on their degree path? Does the school offer multiple course formats so that students have the option to start several times a year and/or to choose between classes of varying lengths? But don’t worry – we still considered graduation rate and tuition costs as well! We hope this has been helpful in providing information about fast online degrees from accredited colleges. There are many fast online degree programs available, and we encourage you to do a broad search to find the program that’s best for you. THIS CONCLUDES OUR RANKING OF THE BEST VALUES IN FAST ONLINE DEGREES. Sources: College Navigator By CVO Staff Published March 2016

Konflik berawal dari kata kerja Latin configere yang bermakna saling memukul. Dari sudut pandang sosiologis, konflik disimpulkan sebagai sebuah proses sosial antara dua orang atau lebih (dapat pula kelompok) di mana satu diantara pihak berupaya menyingkirkan pihak lain dengan menjatuhkannya atau membuatnya tidak berdaya.

Tidak satu orang pun yang tak pernah mengalami konflik antar anggotanya atau mungkin dengan kelompok orang lainnya, konflik akan hilang bersamaan dengan hilangnya orang-orang tersebut.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [] Article Source: Article Source:

Konflik dilatarbelakangi oleh ketidaksamaan ciri-ciri yang dibawa individu dalam suatu hubungan. Ketidaksamaan atau perbedaan itu salah satunya yaitu menyangkut ciri fisik, pengetahuan, kepandaian, adat istiadat, kepercayaan, serta lain sebagainya. Dengan adanya ciri-ciri individual dalam hubungan sosial, konflik adalah kondisi yang lumrah dalam tiap-tiap masyarakat serta tak satu orang pun yang tidak pernah alami konflik antar anggotanya atau mungkin dengan kelompok masyarakat yang lain.

Konflik hanya dapat hilang bersamaan dengan hilangnya masyarakat tersebut. Konflik bertentangan dengan integrasi. Karena Konflik serta Integrasi keduanya berjalan sebagai suatu siklus di masyarakat. Konflik yang terkontrol dapat membuahkan integrasi. Demikian sebaliknya, integrasi yang tidak prima bisa menciptakan konflik.

pengertian konflik

Pengertian Konflik Menrut Ahli

  • Menurut Taquiri dalam Newstorm serta Davis (1977), konflik adalah warisan kehidupan sosial yang bisa berlaku dalam beragam kondisi akibat dari pada berbangkitnya kondisi ketidaksetujuan, pro-kontra serta pertentangan diantara dua pihak atau lebih pihak dengan cara berterusan.
    Menurut Gibson, et al (1997 : 437), interaksi tidak hanya dapat membuat hubungan kerja, hubungan saling bergantung dapat pula melahirkan konflik. Hal semacam ini terjadi bila masing – masing komponen organisasi mempunyai kepentingan atau tujuan sendiri – sendiri serta tak bekerja sama satu sama lain.
  • Menurut Robbin (1996), kehadiran konflik dalam organisasi tergantung oleh persepsi individu atau kelompok. Bila mereka tidak memahami bahwa terdapat konflik di dalam organisasi maka pada umumnya konflik itu dianggap tak ada. Demikian sebaliknya, bila mereka mempersepsikan kalau didalam organisasi sudah ada konflik maka konflik itu sudah menjadi kenyataan.
  • Dipandang sebagai tingkah laku, konflik adalah bentuk interaktif yang berlangsung pada tingkatan individual, interpersonal, kelompok atau fdalam tingkatan organisasi (Muchlas, 1999). Konflik ini khususnya pada tingkatan perorangan yang begitu dekat hubungannya dengan stres.
  • Menurut Minnery (1985), Konflik organisasi adalah hubungan antara dua atau lebih pihak yang keduanya terkait serta sama-sama bergantung, tetapi terpisahkan oleh perbedaan tujuan.
  • Konflik dalam organisasi kerap berlangsung tidak simetris berlangsung hanya satu pihak yang sadar serta memberikan tanggapan terhadap konflik itu. Atau, satu pihak mempersepsikan ada pihak lain yang sudah atau akan menyerang dengan cara negatif (Robbins, 1993).
  • Konflik adalah ekspresi pertikaian pada individu dengan individu lain, kelompok dengan kelompok lain dikarenakan beberapa alasan. Dalam pandangan ini, pertikaian memperlihatkan ada ketidaksamaan antara dua atau lebih individu yang diekspresikan, diingat, serta dialami (Pace & Faules, 1994 : 249).
  • Konflik bisa dirasa, di ketahui, diekspresikan lewat bebrapa perilaku komunikasi (Folger & Poole : 1984).
  • Konflik cenderung berpusat pada beberapa pemicu utama, yaitu tujuan yang ingin diraih, alokasi sumber – sumber yang diberikan, ketentuan yang diambil, ataupun perilaku tiap-tiap pihak yang terlibat (Myers, 1982 : 234-237 ; Kreps, 1986 : 185 ; Stewart, 1993 : 341).
  • Interaksi yang dimaksud komunikasi antara individu yang satu dengan yang lain, tidak bisa dipungkiri dapat menyebabkan konflik dalam level yang tidak sama (Devito, 1995 : 381)

Konflik Menurut Robbin

Robbin (1996 : 431) menyampaikan konflik dalam organisasi dikatakan sebagai The Conflict Paradoks, yakni pandangan bahwa di segi konflik dianggap bisa menambah kinerja kelompok, namun di segi lain umumnya kelompok serta organisasi berupaya untuk meminimalisasikan konflik. Pandangan ini dibagi menjadi tiga bagian, diantaranya :

Pandangan tradisional (The Traditional View). Pandangan ini menyebutkan bahwa konflik itu hal yang tidak baik, suatu hal yang negatif, merugikan, serta harus dijauhi. Konflik disinonimkan dengan arti violence, destruction, serta irrationality. Konflik ini adalah suatu hasil disfungsional akibat komunikasi yang tidak baik, kurang keyakinan, keterbukaan di antara orang – orang, serta kegagalaan manajer untuk tanggap pada kebutuhan serta aspirasi karyawan.

Pandangan hubungan manusia (The Human Relation View. Pandangan ini menyebutkan kalau konflik dianggap sebagai sebuah peristiwa yang lumrah terjadi didalam kelompok maupun organisasi. Konflik dianggap sebagai suatu hal yang tidak bisa dijauhi lantaran di dalam kelompok atau organisasi tentu berlangsung perbedaan pandangan atau pendapat antar anggota. Oleh karenanya, konflik harus dijadikan sebagai suatu hal yang bermanfaat untuk mendorong peningkatan kinerja organisasi. Dengan kata lain, konflik harus dijadikan sebagai motivasi untuk melakukan inovasi atau perubahan di dalam sebuah kelompok atau organisasi.

Pandangan interaksionis (The Interactionist View). Pandangan ini cenderung mendorong sebuah kelompok atau organisasi dalam terjadinya konflik. Hal semacam ini dikarenakan suatu organisasi yang kooperatif, tenang, damai, serta selaras cenderung menjadi statis, apatis, tak aspiratif, serta tak inovatif. Oleh karenanya, menurut pandangan ini, konflik butuh dipertahankan pada tingkat minimum secara berkepanjangan hingga tiap anggota di dalam kelompok itu tetaplah semangat, kritis – diri, serta kreatif.

Teori-teori konflik

Terdapat tiga teori konflik yang menonjol dalam ilmu sosial. Pertama yaitu teori konflik C. Gerrtz, yakni mengenai primodialisme, ke-2 yaitu teori konflik Karl. Marx, yakni mengenai pertentangan kelas, serta ketiga yaitu teori konflik James Scott, yakni mengenai Patron Klien.

Faktor penyebab konflik

Perbedaan individu, yang mencakup perbedaan pendirian serta perasaan.

Tiap-tiap manusia yaitu individu yang unik. Berarti, tiap-tiap orang mempunyai pendirian serta perasaan yang tidak sama satu dengan yang lain. Perbedaan pendirian serta perasaan terhadap suatu hal atau lingkungan yang nyata ini dapat menjadi aspek pemicu konflik sosial, sebab dalam melakukan hubungan sosial, seseorang tidak selamanya sejalan dengan kelompoknya. Contohnya, saat berlangsung pentas musik di lingkungan pemukiman, tentu perasaan tiap-tiap warganya akan berlainan. Ada yang merasa terganggu lantaran berisik, namun ada juga yang merasa terhibur.

Perbedaan latar belakang kebudayaan hingga membuat pribadi-pribadi yang tidak sama.

Seseorang sedikit banyak akan terpengaruh dengan pola-pola pemikiran serta pendirian kelompoknya. Pemikiran serta pendirian yang tidak sama itu selanjutnya akan membuahkan perbedaan individu yang bisa menyebabkan konflik.

Perbedaan kepentingan pada individu atau kelompok.

Manusia mempunyai perasaan, pendirian ataupun latar belakang kebudayaan yang tidak sama. Oleh karenanya, dalam tempo yang bersamaan, masing-masing orang atau kelompok mempunyai kebutuhan yang tidak sama. Terkadang orang bisa melakukan hal yang sama, namun untuk tujuan yang tidak sama. Sebagai contoh, umpamanya perbedaan kepentingan dalam soal pemanfaatan hutan.

Beberapa tokoh masyarakat menanggap hutan sebagai kekayaan budaya yang menjadi bagian dari kebudayaan mereka hingga harus dijaga serta tak boleh ditebang. Beberapa petani menbang pohon-pohon lantaran dianggap sebagai penghambat bagi mereka untuk membuat kebun atau ladang. Untuk beberapa pengusaha kayu, pohon-pohon ditebang selanjutnya kayunya diekspor guna memperoleh uang dan membuka pekerjaan. Lainhal bagi pecinta lingkungan, hutan yaitu bagian dari lingkungan maka harus dilestarikan.


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