Pengertian Lingkungan Hidup: Jenis dan Kerusakan Lingkungan Hidup

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Net Price: $8,624/yr Score: 62.82 National Paralegal College Fast Online Degree NPC’s legal studies program is a no brainer for students who want a fast online degree studying law and government. 5. NATIONAL PARALEGAL COLLEGE Website Through this school’s accelerated online degree programs, you can earn your bachelor’s in legal studies in under 3 years or an associate’s degree in just 15 months. Lots of interesting classes run simultaneously, some of which you’d expect in a legal curriculum (American Government; Torts and Personal Injury; Constitutional Law and Criminal Procedure) but others will broaden your education, including The Science of Nutrition, Environmental Science, and Laws of Cyberspace. Depending on your schedule, you can join live online lectures or watch recordings whenever you have time. Unsure if this school is right for you? Simply by filling out an application, you’ll get two free weeks of enrollment, including lectures and discussions with your potential instructors and classmates. This free trial period could be just what you need to decide to complete an affordable, fast online degree at NPC. Net Price: $13,709/yr Score: 69.33 American Public University System Online Fast Degrees Students who are eager to earn an affordable fast online degree can enroll at APU as early as next month. 4. AMERICAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY SYSTEM Website APUS has been serving non-traditional students since 1991, well before online education became mainstream. Originally founded as American Military University to cater to mobile military learners, it reorganized into APUS in 2002 in order to serve a wider range of learners – and today 42% of its students are civilians. Even so, American Public University continues to enroll more members of the armed forces than any other school. Although it offers nearly 200 degrees and certificates, the school’s most popular programs include business administration, criminal justice, general studies, sports and health sciences, psychology, and homeland security. With courses starting on the first Monday of every month and lasting either 8 or 16 weeks, there’s no need to wait for a new semester to begin, earning APUS a top spot in our fast online degree rankings. Net Price: $9,572/yr Score: 70.60 American InterContinental University Fast Online Degrees Accredited, fast online degrees are in abundance at AIU, which offers programs in everything from business to web design. 3. AMERICAN INTERCONTINENTAL UNIVERSITY-ONLINE Website In addition to the career-focused fields found at other online schools – business, criminal justice, IT, education, and healthcare – AIU also has several degrees in design fields, making it a great choice for students who want to blend vocational skills and artistic vision. You can earn a Bachelor of Fine Arts in graphic design, web design, illustration, or even fashion. For students who live in the greater Atlanta or Houston areas and want face-to-face learning and physical classrooms, there are campuses waiting to welcome you. A generous credit-transfer program allows you to save time and money, making this a truly affordable fast online degree. AIU also has a special admissions department just for the military and offers a 45% tuition discount to active service members, as well as a 10% discount for Reserves, National Guard, and their spouses. Net Price: $15,495/yr Score: 71.82 Sessions-College-for-Professional-Design(1) 2. SESSIONS COLLEGE FOR PROFESSIONAL DESIGN Website Speaking of artistic degrees for vocational trades, Sessions is a great choice for students who want an accredited fast online degree in the arts, such as graphic design, web design, digital photography, and much more. Experienced designers can also take quick professional development courses in Photoshop and other specific skills without pursuing an entire degree. This makes Sessions a standout among the many online colleges that offer more traditional programs in professional fields like business, teaching, or information technology. While Sessions offers numerous certificates and associates degrees, students can also earn credits that transfer to bachelor’s degrees at Excelsior College. All courses have three different start dates a year – January, May and September – giving you plenty of flexibility when planning your schedule. Net Price: $12,352/yr Score: 74.74 American Broadcasting School Fast Online Degrees The American Broadcasting School is #1 on this fast online degree ranking and undoubtedly the best option for aspiring journalists. 1. AMERICAN BROADCASTING SCHOOL Website Granting an inexpensive, fast online degree in radio broadcasting, this school offers a fast track to careers in news, sports, talk, or music radio, as well as other creative voice opportunities. The entire program takes just over eight months to complete (71% of students graduate), uses exclusively one-on-one instruction, and allows you to work at your own pace. You’ll get all the software and equipment you need (as long as you provide your own computer) and personalized vocal coaching. Starting in your very first week, you’ll have the opportunity to record your own radio shows and receive live critiques from professional instructors. Because success in broadcasting requires more than just talent, you’ll also learn digital production, marketing, and other tools of the broadcasting trade. Looking to enroll quickly? You can begin on any Monday of the year! Net Price: $9,459/yr Score: 82.13 See our methodology page for more information about how we calculated this ranking.* *For this ranking, we added an extra feature to the standard methodology. Because we wanted to focus specifically on “speed” rather than general measures of quality, we custom-designed a scale to rank schools based on this highly desirable “fast factor.” Specifically, we researched each online college and asked ourselves the following questions: Does the school offer bachelor’s degrees that one could complete in less than four years? What about associate’s degrees in less than two years? Are there many short certificate options for students who want to quickly augment their skills in an established field? Are there “accelerated” degree paths and options for students who want to earn a combined bachelor’s/master’s degree? Does the school offer credit for life/work experience and past academic coursework in order to help students move ahead on their degree path? Does the school offer multiple course formats so that students have the option to start several times a year and/or to choose between classes of varying lengths? But don’t worry – we still considered graduation rate and tuition costs as well! We hope this has been helpful in providing information about fast online degrees from accredited colleges. There are many fast online degree programs available, and we encourage you to do a broad search to find the program that’s best for you. THIS CONCLUDES OUR RANKING OF THE BEST VALUES IN FAST ONLINE DEGREES. Sources: College Navigator By CVO Staff Published March 2016

Pengertian Lingkungan Hidup. Sebagian besar dari kita mungkin sudah sering mendengar kata lingkungan hidup. Namun, sedikit pihak yang mengerti definisi dari lingkungan hidup. Pengertian dari lingkungan itu sendiri adalah jumlah semua benda hidup dan mati serta seluruh kondisi yang ada di dalam lingkungan yang kita tempati. Nah, berikut ini merupakan definisi dari lingkungan hidup secara umum dan menurut para ahli.

Pengertian Lingkungan Hidup secara umum

Dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 23 Tahun 1997 tentang Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup disebutkan bahwa lingkungan hidup adalah kesatuan ruang dengan semua benda, daya, keadaan, dan makhluk hidup, termasuk manusia serta perilakunya, yang mempengaruhi kelangsungan kehidupan dan kesejahteraan manusia serta makhluk hidup lain.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [] Article Source: Article Source:

Secara umum definisi lingkungan adalah segala sesuatu yang ada di sekitar manusia dan perilakunya serta berpengaruh kepada kehidupan manusia baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Unsur lingkungan hidup dibedakan menjadi tiga, yaitu unsur biotik, unsur abiotik, dan unsur sosial budaya.

Lingkungan biotik adalah lingkungan yang hidup, misalnya jasad renik, tumbuhan, hewan, dan manusia. Sedangkan lingkungan abiotik terdiri dari faktor lingkungan tak hidup, seperti udara, sinar matahari, radiasi, air dan tanah yang mempengaruhi satu sama lain serta mempengaruhi komunitas sekitar makhluk hidup.

Lalu, unsur sosial budaya adalah lingkungan sosial dan lingkungan budaya yang dibuat oleh manusia dan terdiri dari sistem nilai, gagasan, dan keyakinan dalam perilaku sebagai makhluk sosial. Kehidupan masyarakat dapat mencapai keteraturan berkat adanya sistem nilai dan norma yang diakui dan ditaati oleh segenap anggota masyarakat.

Berbagai unsur yang sudah disebutkan di atas, harus berjalan dengan seimbang agar menciptakan kehidupan yang baik. Jika terjadi ketidakseimbangan antara unsur-unsur tersebut maka akan terjadi kejadian buruk, misalnya bencana. Jadi bukan hanya lingkungan fisik saja, lingkungan hidup ini mencakup ekosistem, budaya, dan perilaku sosial.

Fungsi pokok

Dalam keberlangsungan makhluk hidup di alam, lingkungan hidup ini memiliki fungsi pokok. Tanpa lingkungan hidup, manusia dan makhluk hidup lainnya tidak akan bisa bertahan hidup dan tidak memiliki tempat untuk tinggal.

Berbagai fungsi pokok dari lingkungan hidup adalah sebagai berikut :

Sebagai habitat makhluk hidup

Semua makhluk hidup baik manusia, hewan , serta tumbuhan memerlukan tempat untuk tinggal. Bukan sekedar lingkungan saja, namun lingkungan yang sehat dan berjalan dengan baik serta semestinya sehingga bisa digunakan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan makhluk hidup. Selain itu lingkungan hidup juga menjadi tempat untuk tumbuh dan berkembang makhluk hidup itu sendiri.

Penyedia sumber daya alam (SDA) bagi keberlangsungan hidup manusia

Seluruh kebutuhan manusia berasal dari alam. Tanpa adanya lingkungan hidup manusia tidak akan bisa memenuhi kebutuhannya dan tidak dapat mempertahankan keberadaannya.

Memberi pengaruh pada pola pikir, tingkah laku, dan sifat makhluk hidup.

Seperti yang sudah disebutkan di atas bahwa lingkungan hidup bukan hanya berupa lingkungan fisik saja, tetapi juga budaya, sosial, dan sebagainya. Maka, lingkungan hidup juga akan berpengaruh bagi pola pikir, tingkah laku, dan sifat makhluk hidup.

Pengertian Lingkungan Hidup Menurut Para Ahli.


Emil Salim, lingkungan hidup adalah segala benda, kondisi, keadaan dan pengaruh yang terdapat pada dalam ruangan yang kita tempati dan mempengaruhi hal yang hidup termasuk kehidupan manusia.

Otto Soemarwoto, lingkungan hidup adalah segala sesuatu yang ada pada setiap mahkluk hidup atau organisme dan berpengaruh pada kehidupannya.

S.J McNaughton dan Larry L. Wofl, lingkungan hidup adalah semua faktor eksternal yang bersifat biologis dan fisika yang langsung mempengaruhi kehidupan, pertumbuhan, perkembangan, dan reproduksi organisme.

Michael Allaby, lingkungan hidup diartikan sebagai: the physical, chemical and biotic condition surrounding and organism.

Bentuk-bentuk kerusakan lingkungan hidup dan faktor penyebabnya


Seperti yang sudah kita tahu, bahwa lingkungan hidup memiliki keterbatasan, baik dalam hal kualitas maupun kuantitas. Dengan kata lain, lingkungan hidup bisa mengalami fase penurunan kualitas dan kuantitas. Penurunan kualitas dan kuantitas ini menyebabkan kondisi lingkungan kurang atau tidak dapat berfungsi sebagaimana mestinya. Kerusakan lingkungan hidup dapat disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor yaitu:

Kerusakan lingkungan akibat proses alam

Kerusakan lingkungan hidup oleh alam terjadi karena adanya peristiwa alam yang terjadi secara hebat sehingga dapat mempengaruhi keseimbangan lingkungan hidup. Peristiwa-peristiwa alam yang dapat mempengaruhi kerusakan lingkungan antara lain meliputi hal hal berikut :

a. Letusan gunung api

Saat bencana ini terjadi, letusan gunung api menyemburkan lava, lahar, material padat berbagai bentuk dan ukuran, uap panas, serta debu-debu vulkanis. Lalu, letusan gunung api selalu disertai dengan gempa bumi lokal yang disebut dengan gempa vulkanik. Aliran lahar panas dapat mematikan semua bentuk kehidupan yang dilaluinya, sedangkan aliran lahar dingin dapat menghanyutkan lapisan permukaan tanah dan menyebabkan longsor.

Uap belerang yang keluar dari pori-pori tanah dapat mencemari tanah dan air karena dapat meninggalkan tingkat kadar asam air dan tanah. Debu-debu vulkanis sangat berbahaya jika terhirup oleh makhluk hidup (khususnya manusia dan hewan), hal ini dikarenakan debu-debu vulkanis yang berterbangan di udara menempel pada dedaunan dan tidak dapat hilang dengan sendirinya.

Hal ini berdampak pada tumbuhan tidak dapat berfotosintesis sehingga lambat laun akan mati. Dampak letusan gunung memerlukan waktu yang cukup lama untuk kembali ke kondisi semula tergantung pada kekuatan ledakan dan tingkat kerusakan yang ditimbulkan. Akan tetapi, setelah kembali ke kondisi normal, maka daerah tersebut menjadi daerah yang lahannya subur karena mengalami proses peremajaan tanah.

b. Gempa bumi

Gempa bumi adalah bencana alam yang terjadi akibat adanya getaran yang ditimbulkan karena gerakan endogen. Semakin besar kekuatan gempa, maka akan menimbulkan kerusakan yang semakin parah di permukaan bumi. Jika kekuatan gempa bumi melanda lautan, maka akan terjadi tsunami, yaitu gelombang pasang air laut yang menghempas daratan dengan kecepatan yang sangat tinggi.

c. Banjir

Banjir merupakan salah satu bentuk fenomena alam yang dapat dikatakan unik sebab banjir dapat terjadi karena murni gejala alam dan dapat juga karena ulah manusia. Banjir dikatakan sebagai gejala alam murni jika kondisi alam memang mempengaruhi terjadinya banjir, misalnya saat hujan yang datang terus-menerus, terjadi di daerah basin, dataran rendah, atau di lembah-lembah sungai.

Lain halnya dengan ulah manusia, misal karena penggundulan hutan di kawasan resapan, timbunan sampah yang menyumbat saluran air. Kerugian yang ditimbulkan akibat banjir antara lain, hilangnya lapisan permukaan tanah yang subur karena terkikis oleh aliran air, rusaknya tanaman, dan rusaknya bangunan dan fasilitas yang ada.

d. Tanah longsor

Bencana alam ini dapat terjadi karena proses alam ataupun karena kecerobohan manusia. Bencana ini berakibat pada rusaknya struktur tanah, lahan pertanian, pemukiman, sarana dan prasarana, dan bangunan lainnya. Bencana ini pada umumnya melanda kawasan yang memiliki topografi agak miring berlereng curam.

e. Badai

Badai terjadi karena adanya perbedaan tekanan udara yang sangat mencolok di suatu daerah sehingga menyebabkan angin bertiup lebih kencang. Bencana ala mini umumnya merusak tumbuhan, bangunan, sarana dan prasarana umum, serta membahayakan kegiatan penerbangan.

f. Kemarau panjang

Bencana alam ini kebalikan dari bencana banjir. Bencana ini terjadi karena adanya penyimpangan iklim yang terjadi di suatu daerah yang berdampak musim kemarau terjadi lebih lama dari biasanya. Bencana ini menimbulkan berbagai kerugian, seperti mengeringnya sungai dan sumber air, dan dapat menimbulkan titik-titik api penyebab kebakaran hutan, dan menggagalkan kegiatan panen pertanian maupun perkebunan.

2. Kerusakan Lingkungan Hidup karena Aktivitas Manusia

Dalam memanfaatkan alam, manusia terkadang mengabaikan dampak yang akan ditimbulkan. Beberapa bentuk kerusakan lingkungan yang dipengaruhi oleh aktivitas manusia, antara lain, meliputi hal-hal berikut ini.

a. Pencemaran Lingkungan

Pencemaran disebut juga dengan polusi, terjadi karena terbentuknya bahan-bahan pencemar (polutan) yang dapat mengganggu keseimbangan lingkungan. Bahan-bahan pencemar tersebut pada umumnya merupakan dampak dari aktivitas manusia dalam pembangunan. Berdasarkan jenisnya, pencemaran dibagi menjadi empat jenis, yaitu pencemaran udara, pencemaran tanah, pencemaran air, dan pencemaran suara.

1) Pencemaran Udara

Pencemaran udara yang ditimbulkan oleh ulah manusia antara lain, disebabkan oleh asap sisa hasil pembakaran, khususnya bahan bakar fosil (minyak dan batu bara) yang ditimbulkan oleh kendaraan bermotor, mesin-mesin pabrik, dan mesin-mesin pesawat terbang atau roket. Dampak yang ditimbulkan dari pencemaran udara, antara lain, berkurangnya kadar oksigen (O2) di udara, menipisnya lapisan ozon (O3), dan bila bersenyawa dengan air hujan akan menimbulkan hujan asam yang dapat merusak dan mencemari air, tanah, atau tumbuhan. Pecemaran udara di sebabkan oleh :

a) CO2 – Karbon dioksida datang dari pabrik, mesin-mesin yang memanfaatkan bahan bakar fosil (batubara, minyak bumi), juga dari mobil, kapal, pesawat terbang, serta pembakaran kayu.
Meningkatnya kandungan CO2 di udara bila tak lekas dirubah menjadi oksigen dapat menyebabkan efek rumah kaca.

b) CO (Karbon Monoksida) – Sistem pembakaran pada mesin yang tidak sempurna, dapat menghasilkan gas CO. Bila mesin mobil dihidupkan di dalam garasi dalam keadaan tertutup, orang yang berada di garasi bisa meninggal akibat menghirup gas CO. Menghidupkan AC saat tidur di dalam mobil dalam kondisi tertutup juga beresiko. Bocoran gas CO dari knalpot bisa masuk ke dalam mobil, sehingga dapat mengakibatkan kematian.

c) CFC (Khloro Fluoro Karbon) – Gas CFC dimanfaatkan sebagai gas pengembang dikarenakan tak bereaksi, tak berbau, serta tak berasa. CFC banyak dipakai untuk meningkatkan busa (busa kursi), untuk AC (Freon), pendingin pada lemari es, serta hairspray. CFC dapat mengakibatkan lubang ozon di atmosfer.

d) SO dan SO2 – Gas belerang oksida (SO, SO2) di udara dihasilkan oleh pembakaran fosil (minyak, batubara). Gas itu bisa bereaksi dengan gas nitrogen oksida serta air hujan, yang mengakibatkan air hujan menjadi asam. Hujan asam menyebabkan tumbuhan serta hewan-hewan tanah mati, produksi pertanian turun, besi serta logam mudah berkarat, bangunan-bangunan kuno, seperti candi menjadi cepat aus serta rusak, demikian juga bangunan gedung serta jembatan.

e) Asap Rokok – Asap rokok dapat mengakibatkan batuk kronis, kanker paru-paru, mempengaruhi janin dalam kandungan serta beragam masalah kesehatan lainnya. Perokok dibedakan jadi dua yakni perokok aktif (mereka yang merokok) serta perokok pasif (orang yang tidak merokok namun menghirup asap rokok). Perokok pasif lebih beresiko daripada perokok aktif.

Akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh pencemaran udara, antara lain :
· Terganggunya kesehatan manusia, contohnya batuk, bronkhitis, emfisema, serta penyakit pernafasan lainnya.
· Rusaknya bangunan karena pelapukan, korosi pada logam, serta memudarnya warna cat.
· Terganggunya perkembangan tanaman, seperti menguningnya daun atau kerdilnya tanaman akibat konsentrasi gas SO2 yang tinggi di udara.
· Adanya peristiwa efek rumah kaca yang bisa menambah suhu udara secara global dan dapat merubah pola iklim bumi serta mencairkan es di kutub.
· Terjadinya hujan asam yang dipicu oleh pencemaran oksida nitrogen.

2) Pencemaran Tanah

Pencemaran Tanah akibat dari sampah plastik maupun sampah anorganik lain yang tidak bisa di urai di dalam tanah. Pencemaran tanah dikarenakan oleh pemakaian pupuk atau obat-obatan kimia yang digunakan secara yang berlebih dalam pertanian, sehingga tanah kelebihan beberapa zat tertentu yang justru bisa menjadi toksin untuk tanaman. Efek rusaknya ekosistem tanah yaitu makin menyusutnya tingkat kesuburan tanah sehingga makin lama tanah itu akan menjadi tanah kritis yang tidak bisa diolah atau digunakan.


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