Pengertian, Struktur dan Fungsi Limpa

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Net Price: $9,459/yr Score: 82.13 See our methodology page for more information about how we calculated this ranking.* *For this ranking, we added an extra feature to the standard methodology. Because we wanted to focus specifically on “speed” rather than general measures of quality, we custom-designed a scale to rank schools based on this highly desirable “fast factor.” Specifically, we researched each online college and asked ourselves the following questions: Does the school offer bachelor’s degrees that one could complete in less than four years? What about associate’s degrees in less than two years? Are there many short certificate options for students who want to quickly augment their skills in an established field? Are there “accelerated” degree paths and options for students who want to earn a combined bachelor’s/master’s degree? Does the school offer credit for life/work experience and past academic coursework in order to help students move ahead on their degree path? Does the school offer multiple course formats so that students have the option to start several times a year and/or to choose between classes of varying lengths? But don’t worry – we still considered graduation rate and tuition costs as well! We hope this has been helpful in providing information about fast online degrees from accredited colleges. There are many fast online degree programs available, and we encourage you to do a broad search to find the program that’s best for you. THIS CONCLUDES OUR RANKING OF THE BEST VALUES IN FAST ONLINE DEGREES. Sources: College Navigator By CVO Staff Published March 2016 https://www.collegevaluesonline.com/rankings/fast-online-degrees-best-values/

Limpa melayani peran penting dalam fungsi kekebalan tubuh karena memurnikan darah dan membantu sistem kekebalan tubuh untuk mengenali dan menyerang patogen asing dan alergen. Limpa terdiri dari pulpa merah dan pulpa putih. Pulpa putih memproduksi dan tumbuh sel-sel kekebalan tubuh serta sel-sel darah. Di sisi lain, pulpa merah bertanggung jawab untuk memurnikan darah dan menghilangkan sel-sel darah mati atau tua

PENGERTIAN LIMPA

Limpa adalah organ yang bertanggung jawab untuk penyimpanan dan pemurnian sel darah merah. Limpa diposisikan di perut bagian atas kiri, dan merupakan organ terbesar dari sistem limfatik.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [http://peritonealmesotheliomatreatment.com/] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [http://mesotheliomatreatmentnews.com/] Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Lan_Sipenyair/912820 Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6234654

Limpa atau disebut juga dengan Lien atau Spleen, merupakan salah satu organ jaringan limfatik dengan massa lunak yang terletak di bagian kiri atas rongga abdomen (rongga perut), diantara diafragma dan gaster (lambung). Limpa merupakan kelenjar tanpa saluran (ductless), berfungsi untuk memecah dan megurai sel darah merah (filter darah) serta berperan dalam sistem imun manusia. Limpa termasuk salah satu organ sistem limfoid, selain timus, tonsil, dan kelenjar limfe. Sistem limfoid itu sendiri berfungsi untuk melindungi tubuh dari kerusakan akibat zat asing. Sel-sel pada sistem ini dikenal dengan sel imunokompeten yaitu sel yang mampu membedakan sel tubuh dengan zat asing dan melakukan perusakan benda-benda asing . Sel imunokompeten terdiri atas :

  • sel utama bergerak, yakni sel limfosit dan makrofaga, dan
  • sel utama menetap, yakni retikuloendotel dan sel plasma

Limpa memiliki warna kemerahan, dan merupakan sebuah massa limfoid terbesar di dalam tubuh. Limpa berbentuk lonjong dan berukuran sebesar kepalan tangan manusia. Limpa memiliki banyak fungsi bagi tubuh, namun limpa bukan merupakan organ vital bagi tubuh, limpa tidak begitu berarti untuk kelangsungan hidup manusia (seorang manusia masih mampu bertahan hidup tanpa adanya limpa) .

FUNGSI LIMPA

  • Fungsi limpa berhubungan erat dengan sistem kekebalan tubuh serta filter darah. Secara umum limpa berfungsi untuk mengakumulasi limfosit dan makrofaga, degradasi eritrosit, tempat cadangan darah, dan sebagai organ pertahanan terhadap infeksi partikel asing yang masuk ke dalam darah .
  • Di dalam organ limpa terdapat “Spleen Phagocytoses” (Limpa fagosit) yang berfungsi sebagai penghancur eritrosit (sel darah merah) yang sudah tua. Setiap harinya limpa akan membuang 20 ml sel darah merah yang sudah tua. Selain iru sel-sel yang sudah terikat pada Ig G pada permukaan akan dibuang oleh monosit. Limpa juga akan membuang sel darah putih yang abnormal, platelet dan sel-sel debris.
  • Membebaskan haemoglobin dari eritrosit, yang nantinya akan di ubah oleh hati menjadi bilirubin.
  • “Spleen Phagocytoses” (Limpa fagosit) juga berfungsi sebagai penghasil limfosit dan sel Plasma. Limfosit yang dihasilkan tersebut juga nantinya akan disimpan dan menghasilkan antibody yang dapat membantu sistem kekebalan tubuh.
  • Limpa juga berfungsi sebagai Penyimpan cadangan sel darah merah, dan melepaskannya ketika terjadi perdarahan. Oleh karena itu limpa juga berfungsi sebagai sistem pengendalian darah agar tetap berjalan sebagaimana mestinya dalam pembuluh darah.
  • Membentuk eritrosit baru selama masa janin (in utero) dan bayi baru lahir.
  • Menghancurkan Leukosit dan Trombosit
  • Menghasilkan Antibody sebagai sistem reticulo-endotelial (limposit-B dibentuk di sum-sum tulang sebagai antibody, sedangkan limposit-T dibentuk di kelenjar getah bening dan limpa yang juga di program sebagai antibody untuk melawan antigen tertentu). Limpa juga menyaring darah dengan cara yang sama seperti sebuah nodus yang menyaring getah bening, sel B dan sel T yang bermigrasi dari sumsum tulang merah dan Thymus yang telah matang pada limpa (Ada 3 jenis sel T yang menakjubkan, itu adalah memori T sel yang dapat mengenali patogen yang telah memasuki tubuh sebelumnya. Dan dapat menangani mereka dengan lebih cepat, sel T lainnya disebut helper dan sitotoksik) yang melaksanakan fungsi kekebalan, sedangkan sel makrofag limpa menghancurkan sel-sel darah patogen yang dilakukan oleh fagositosis.
  • Mengangkut kelebihan air dari jaringan kembali ke darah (mengatur cairan dan pengolahan makanan). Cairan interestial yang menggenangi jaringan secara terus menerus yang diambil oleh kapiler kapiler limfatik disebut dengan Limfa. Limfa mengalir melalui sistem pembuluh yang akhirnya kembali ke sistem sirkulasi. Ini dimulai pada ekstremitas dari sistem kapiler limfatik yang dirancang untuk menyerap cairan dalam jaringan yang kemudian dibawa melalui sistem limfatik yang bergerak dari kapiler ke limfatik (pembuluh getah bening) dan kemudian ke kelenjar getah bening. Getah bening ini disaring melalui benjolan dan keluar dari limfatik eferen. Dari sana getah bening melewati batang limfatik dan akhirnya ke dalam saluran limfatik. Pada titik ini getah bening dilewatkan kembali ke dalam aliran darah dimana perjalanan ini dimulai lagi.
  • Limpa mengekstraksi nutrisi dari makanan dan mengangkutnya ke bagian tubuh lainnya termasuk otot, menjamin kekuatan dan pengembangan otot serta anggota gerak.
  • Produksi opsonin – tufsin dan properdin. Tufsin mempromosikan fagositosis. Properdin menginisiasi pengaktifan komplemen untuk dekstruksi bakteri dan benda asing yang terperangkap di dalam limpa.

Gangguan Limpa

Berikut ini adalah beberapa masalah limpa yang paling umum dan kemungkinan penyebabnya:

  • Splenomegali : Ini adalah istilah lain untuk pembesaran limpa. Beberapa alasan yang paling umum adalah infeksi yang disebabkan oleh virus, bakteri, dan parasit. Kanker dan kondisi yang mempengaruhi darah atau sistem limfatik juga dapat menyebabkan kondisi ini. Penyakit peradangan seperti artritis rematoid juga terkait dengan ukuran abnormal limpa. Terkadang, limpa membesar ketika terjadi penumpukan jaringan lunak abses atau tumbuh kista (tumor ganas).
  • Limpa pecah :Limpa pecah merupakan salah satu kerusakan organ. Kondisi ini dapat digambarkan sebagai terkoyaknya limpa, yang berarti hanya sebagian dari organ robek atau rusak. Bagaimanapun, limpa membutuhkan perhatian medis segera karena dapat menyebabkan pendarahan internal dan syok. Salah satu penyebab paling umum dari limpa pecah adalah kecelakaan, khususnya tabrakan kendaraan.
  • Hipersplenisme : Ini adalah istilah untuk menggambarkan suatu limpa yang terlalu aktif. Limpa mungkin menyaring sel darah merah sebelum waktunya. Kondisi ini dapat dikaitkan dengan kanker getah bening, penyakit peradangan, sirosis hati, dan malaria.
  • Penyerapan limpa : Ini adalah kondisi medis yang berhubungan dengan penyakit sel sabit, yaitu gangguan darah bawaan yang ditandai oleh adanya darah merah yang berbentuk tidak normal seperti sabit. Karena sel ini dapat rusak dengan mudah dan cepat, kemungkinan tidak terdapat oksigen yang cukup dalam darah, yang mengakibatkan terjadinya anemia. Sel sabit juga dapat menumpuk pada limpa ketika sel darah merah disaring, yang dapat menyebabkan limpa membesar dan fungsi organ berkurang.
  • Aksesori limpa : Aksesori limpa adalah limpa tambahan. Limpa ini tidak memiliki fungsi dan pada dianggap tanpa efek samping.
  • Trombositopenia : Sebuah kondisi di mana tidak terdapat cukup trombosit dalam aliran darah karena limpa mencoba untuk menahan sebagian besar trombosit.
  • Asplenia : Suatu kondisi di mana limpa tidak berfungsi secara normal. Orang tersebut juga ada kemungkinan tidak memiliki limpa, namun jarang terjadi.

STRUKTUR DAN BAGIAN LIMPA

Limpa memiliki bentuk yang lonjong, dengan ukuran panjang kira-kira 12 cm (5 inci), lebar 7 cm dan tinggi 4 cm, serta memiliki berat sekitar 150 g. Normalnya limpa tidak dapat di raba kecuali ketika terjadi pembesaran pada limpa (spleenomegali). Secara anatomis, tepi limpa yang normal berbentuk pipih. Limpa terletak intraperitoneal (dalam peritoneum), pada rongga abdomen kiri atas. Posisi limpa ini bergantung terhadap respirasi (pernapasan), karena letaknya yang sangat berdekatan dengan diafragma.

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