Perkembangan Sistem Periodik Unsur

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Perkembangan Sistem Periodik Unsur Selamat datang di Lahiya, situs (blog) sederhana yang berbagi ilmu dan pengetahuan dengan penuh keikhlasan. Dan, pada kesempatan kali ini, kami bakal sharing pengetahuan mengenai Perkembangan Sistem Periodik Unsur meliputi Triade Dobereiner, Teori Oktaf Newland, Sistem Periodik Mendeleev, dan Sistem Periodik Modern.

Tiap saat, unsur-unsur kimia baru makin banyak diketemukan oleh beberapa pakar hingga menyebabkan kesulitan dalam mempelajarinya. Oleh sebab itu, dibuatlah pengelompokan hingga unsur-unsur itu bisa tertata dengan baik hingga lahirlah system periodik unsur. System periodik unsur memiliki kandungan hampir seluruh informasi mengenai beberapa karakter unsur yang saat ini berjumlah tidak kurang dari 118, yang mencakup unsur alam serta sintesis.

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Perkembangan System Periodik Unsur

Usaha untuk mengelompokkan unsur-unsur ke dalam beberapa kelompok tertentu sesungguhnya udah dikerjakan beberapa pakar mulai sejak dulu, namun pengelompokan masa itu masihlah sederhana. Pengelompokan yang paling sederhana adalah membagi unsur ke dalam kelompok logam serta non-logam.

Triade Dobereiner

Seiring perkembangan pengetahuan kimia, usaha pengelompokan unsur-unsur yang makin banyak itu dikerjakan oleh beberapa pakar dengan beragam dasar pengelompokan yang tidak sama, namun pada akhirnya memiliki tujuan yang sama, yakni memudahkan dalam mempelajari beberapa karakter unsur. Diawali pada tahun 1829, Johan Wolfgang Dobereiner mengelompokkan unsur-unsur yang sangat serupa sifatnya. Nyatanya setiap kelompok terbagi dalam tiga unsur, hingga kelompok itu disebut dengan triad. Jika unsur-unsur dalam satu triad disusun menurut kenaikan massa atom relatifnya, nyatanya massa atom ataupun beberapa karakter unsur yang kedua adalah rata-rata dari massa atom relatif ataupun beberapa karakter unsur pertama serta ketiga.

System triad ini mempunyai kekurangan yakni kurang efektif lantaran ada beberapa unsur lain yang tidak termasuk juga ke dalam satu triad namun memiliki beberapa karakter serupa dengan triade itu.

Teori Oktaf Newland

John Alexander, pada tahun 1864 membuat ulang daftar unsur yang berjumlah lebih banyak. Susunan Newland memperlihatkan bahwa seandainya unsur-unsur disusun berdasarkan kenaikan massa atomnya, unsur pertama miliki kemiripan karakter dengan unsur kedelapan, unsur kedua dengan unsur kesembilan, dan sebagainya. Penemuan Newland ini dinyatakan sebagai Hukum Oktaf Newland.

Pada saat daftar Oktaf Newland ini disusun, unsur-unsur gas mulia (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, serta Rn) belum diketemukan. Gas mulia diketemukan oleh Rayleigh serta Ramsay pada tahun 1984. Unsur gas mulia yang pertama diketemukan yaitu gas argon.
Hukum oktaf ini mempunyai kekurangan lantaran cuma berlaku untuk unsur-unsur ringan. Bila diteruskan, nyatanya kemiripan sifatnya terlampau dipaksakan. Umpamanya, Zn memiliki karakter yang cukup berbeda dengan Be, Mg, serta Ca.

System Periodik Mendeleev

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev pada tahun 1869, bikin kesimpulan dari unsur kimia yang udah diketemukan pada saat itu kalau beberapa karakter unsur yaitu fungsi periodik dari massa atom relatifnya serta kesamaan karakter. Artinya, bila unsur-unsur disusun menurut kenaikan massa atom relatifnya, karakter tertentu akan berulang secara periodik. Mendeleev meletakkan unsur-unsur yang memiliki kemiripan karakter dalam satu lajur vertikal, yang disebut dengan golongan. Lajur-lajur horizontal, yakni lajur unsur-unsur berdasarkan kenaikan massa atom relatifnya, disebut dengan periode.

Hal yang penting dalam system periodik Mendeleev yaitu:

  • Dua unsur yang berdekatan, massa atom relatifnya memiliki selisih paling kurang dua atau satu satuan;
  • Ada kotak kosong untuk unsur yang belum diketemukan, seperti 44, 68, 72, serta 100;
  • Bisa meramalkan karakter unsur yang belum di kenal seperti ekasilikon;
  • Bisa mengoreksi kekeliruan pengukuran massa atom relatif beberapa unsur misalnya Cr = 52, 0 bukan 43, 3.

Kelebihan system periodik Mendeleev:

  • Karakter kimia serta fisika unsur dalam satu golongan serupa serta berubah secara teratur
  • Valensi paling tinggi sebuah unsur sama juga dengan nomer golongannya
  • Bisa meramalkan karakter unsur yang belum diketemukan pada saat itu serta sudah memiliki tempat yang kosong.

Kekurangan system periodik Mendeleev:

  • Panjang periode tidak sama serta penyebabnya tidak dapat dijelaskan
  • Beberapa unsur tidak disusun berdasarkan kenaikan massa atomnya, contohnya Te (128) sebelum I (127).
  • Selisih massa unsur yang berurutan tidak senantiasa 2, namun berkisar antara 1 serta 4 hingga sulit meramalkan massa unsur yang belum di ketahui secara tepat
  • Valensi unsur yang melebihi dari satu susah diramalkan dari golongannya
  • Anomali (penyimpangan) unsur hidrogen dari unsur lain tidak dijelaskan.

System Periodik Modern

Lebih kurang 45 tahun berikutnya, tepatnya pada tahun 1914, Henry G. Moseley (1887 – 1915) menemukan kalau urutan unsur dalam system periodik sesuai dengan kenaikan nomer atom unsur. Penempatan telurium (Ar = 128) serta iodin (Ar = 127) yang tidak sesuai dengan kenaikan massa atom relatif, nyatanya sesuai dengan kenaikan nomer atomnya (nomer atom Te = 52 ; I = 53). Jadi, karakter periodik lebih tepat jika dikatakan sebagai fungsi nomer atom. System periodik unsur modern disusun berdasarkan kenaikan nomer atom serta kemiripan karakter. System periodik unsur modern adalah penyempurnaan dari system periodik Mendeleev.

System periodik modern juga dikenal sebagai system periodik bentuk panjang, disusun berdasarkan kenaikan nomer atom serta kemiripan karakter. Dalam system periodik modern ada lajur mendatar yang disebut dengan periode serta lajur tegak yang disebut dengan golongan.

Jumlah periode dalam system periodik ada 7 serta di beri tanda dengan angka:

  • Periode 1 disebut dengan sebagai periode sangat pendek serta berisi 2 unsur
  • Periode 2 disebut dengan sebagai periode pendek serta berisi 8 unsur
  • Periode 3 disebut dengan sebagai periode pendek serta berisi 8 unsur
  • Periode 4 disebut dengan sebagai periode panjang serta berisi 18 unsur
  • Periode 5 disebut dengan sebagai periode panjang serta berisi 18 unsur
  • Periode 6 disebut dengan sebagai periode sangat panjang serta berisi 32 unsur, pada periode ini ada unsur
  • Lantanida, yakni unsur nomer 58 hingga nomer 71 serta ditempatkan di bagian bawah.
  • Periode 7 disebut dengan sebagai periode belum lengkap lantaran mungkin saja akan makin bertambah lagi jumlah unsur yang bakal mengisi periode ini. Hingga saat ini ada 24 unsur yang menempati periode ini.

Periode ini memiliki jejeran unsur yang disebut dengan aktinida, yakni unsur bernomor 90 hingga nomer 103 serta ditempatkan di bagian bawah.

Jumlah golongan dalam system periodik ada 8 serta ditandai dengan angka Romawi. Ada dua golongan besar, yakni golongan A (golongan paling utama) serta golongan B (golongan transisi). Golongan B terdapat antara golongan IIA serta golongan IIIA.


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