Proses Pembentukan Urin

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Proses Pembentukan Urin Selamat datang di Lahiya, situs (blog) sederhana yang berbagi ilmu dan pengetahuan dengan penuh keikhlasan. Dan, pada kesempatan kali ini, kami bakal sharing pengetahuan mengenai Proses Pembentukan Urin. Proses ini sendiri melibatkan tiga komponen, yakni filtrasi, reabsorpsi, dan sekresi. Untuk penjelasan lebih lanjut silakan baca uraian pada postingan ini.

Penyaringan (filtrasi)

Proses penyaringan darah terjadi pada kapiler glomerulus, yaitu kapiler darah yang bergulung di dalam kapsul Bowman. Pada glomerulus ada beberapa sel endotelium hingga memudahkan penyaringan darah. Darah dari glomerulus bakal melewati beberapa sel epitelium dari kapsul Bowman yang berperan sebagai penyaring yang disebut dengan sel podosit. Sel podosit bisa ditembus oleh air serta molekul-molekul memiliki ukuran kecil, namun tidak bisa ditembus oleh oleh molekul besar seperti beberapa sel darah serta protein plasma darah. Tidak hanya proses penyaringan, di glomerulus juga terjadi pengikatan beberapa sel darah, keping darah, serta beberapa protein plasma supaya tidak ikut di keluarkan. Hasil penyaringan ini berbentuk filtrat glomerulus (urin primer) yang komposisinya serupa dengan darah namun tidak memiliki kandungan protein.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [http://peritonealmesotheliomatreatment.com/] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [http://mesotheliomatreatmentnews.com/] Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Lan_Sipenyair/912820 Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6234654


Dalam proses penyaringan tidak terjadi penentuan molekul-molekul yang memiliki ukuran kecil, hingga beberapa molekul masuk ke dalam saluran nefron. Oleh sebab itu di dalam filtrat itu bisa diketemukan garam, glukosa, vitamin, hasil metabolisme nitrogen dalam bentuk urea, serta molekul-molekul memiliki ukuran kecil yang lain yang mencerminkan konsentrasi substansi tersebut di dalam darah.

Penyerapan kembali (reabsorpsi)

Urin primer yang merupakan hasil proses penyaringan berikutnya mengalir ke pembuluh proksimal. Di dalam pembuluh ini terjadi proses penyerapan kembali bahan-bahan yang masihlah bermanfaat, antara lain glukosa, asam amino, serta sejumlah besar ion-ion anorganik. Penyerapan bahan-bahan itu, air yang ada dalam filtrat glomerulus juga mengalami penyerapan lewat proses osmosis.

Proses penyerapan air terjadi juga di dalam pembuluh distal, lengkung Henle, serta pembuluh pengumpul (pembuluh yang turun). Berikutnya, beberapa bahan yang sudah diserap kembali itu dikembalikan ke dalam darah lewat pembuluh kapiler yang ada di sekitar pembuluh. Proses penyerapan bahan-bahan yang masihlah bermanfaat juga terjadi di lengkung Henle (pembuluh yang naik) terlebih penyerapan ion natrium klorida.

Sesudah terjadi penyerapan bakal dihasilkan urin sekunder yang komposisi beberapa zat penyusunnya amat berbeda dengan urin primer. Di dalam urin sekunder ini beberapa zat yang masihlah diperlukan tidak diketemukan lagi, sedangkan urea kandungannya bertambah dibandingkan dengan urin primer.

Sekresi

Sekresi yaitu proses menambahkan beberapa zat terlarut yang ada di dalam plasma darah ke filtrat yang ada di dalam saluran nefron, yakni di dalam pembuluh proksimal serta pembuluh distal. Tidak sama dengan proses filtrasi, sekresi adalah proses penentuan molekul yang amat selektif, lewat mekanisme transpor aktif serta pasif. Misalnya pengontrolan ion-ion hidrogen dari cairan interstisial ke dalam pembuluh nefron untuk melindungi pH cairan tubuh tetap konstan.

Dari keterangan ketiga proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan urin, untuk melindungi supaya konsentrasi garam dalam cairan tubuh tetap, adalah dengan reabsorpsi serta sekresi. Fungsi paling utama dari nefron yaitu serta pembuluh pengumpul yaitu sebagai pusat keseimbangan semua organ tubuh dengan merubah komposisi dari filtrat, meningkatkan konsentrasi dari beberapa senyawa, serta menurunkan konsentrasi senyawa tertentu yang terlarut dalam urin dan pada akhirnya bakal diekskresikan.

Proses pembentukan urin

Komposisi urin normal terdiri atas 96% air serta 4% benda padat yang mencakup 2% urea serta 2% hasil metabolik yang lain. Hasil metabolik lain itu antara lain yaitu zat warna empedu yang berfungsi memberikan warna kuning pada urin, garam-garam mineral seperti natrium serta kalium klorida, dan beberapa zat yang berlebihan dalam darah, seperti vitamin B serta C. Volume urin manusia cuma 1% dari filtrat glomerulus, artinya 99% filtrat glomerulus bakal diserap kembali. Tiap harinya, jumlah air yang diserap kembali kurang lebih 178 liter, garam 1. 200 gram, serta glukosa 150 gram.

Urin yang kita keluarkan setiap hari selalu tidak sama jumlahnya, hal semacam ini dikarenakan oleh dampak dari beberapa faktor yakni:

Hormon antidiuretik (ADH)

Hormon antidiuretik (ADH) berperan untuk memudahkan penyerapan air di bagian tubulus distal serta pembuluh pengumpul. Bila konsentrasi air mengalami penurunan di dalam darah (artinya cairan darah lebih pekat), ADH disekresikan serta dialirkan ke dalam ginjal bersama darah. Mengakibatkan, permeabilitas dinding pembuluh distal serta pembuluh pengumpul pada air bertambah hingga air yang masuk diserap kembali. Mengakibatkan, urin yang terbentuk sedikit. Demikian sebaliknya, bila konsentrasi air di dalam darah tinggi (artinya cairan darah lebih encer), sekresi ADH mengalami penurunan, hingga penyerapan air di pembuluh distal serta pembuluh pengumpul menyusut serta urin yang dihasilkan encer serta banyak.

Jumlah air yang diminum

Bila jumlah air yang diminum seseorang banyak, konsentrasi protein darah mengalami penurunan serta konsentrasi air meningkat. Oleh sebab itu tekanan koloid mengalami penurunan, hingga tekanan filtrasinya jadi kurang efisien. Oleh karena itu, air yang diserap menyusut. Hasil urin yang di produksi bertambah.

Konsentrasi hormon insulin

Jika konsentrasi hormon insulin rendah (umpamanya pada penderita kencing manis), kandungan gula dalam darah tinggi serta bakal di keluarkan lewat pembuluh distal. Kehadiran zat gula itu bakal mengganggu proses penyerapan kembali air di dalam pembuluh distal, lantaran konsentrasi gula bertambah. Oleh karena itu penderita DM bakal kerap berkemih.

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