Proses Terbentuknya Bumi

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Proses Terbentuknya Bumi Selamat datang di Lahiya, situs (blog) sederhana yang berbagi ilmu dan pengetahuan dengan penuh keikhlasan. Dan, pada kesempatan kali ini, kami bakal sharing pengetahuan mengenai Proses Terbentuknya Bumi. Bumi merupakan planet yang kita tempati, bagaimana ya sebenarnya proses terbentuknya bumi kita ini? Nah jawaban dari pertanyaan itulah yang akan sahabat temukan dalam postingan saya kali ini. Beberapa hal yang akan saya bahas adalah tentang Pengertian bumi, teori terbentuknya bumi, Perkembangan bumi, dan hipotesa ahli yang dipercaya hingga saat ini. Langsung saja ya.

Pengertian Bumi

Bumi yaitu planet yang merupakan rumah untuk semua makhluk hidup beserta isinya. Kurang lebih 250 juta th. waktu lalu beberapa kerak benua di Bumi adalah satu massa daratan yang di kenal sebagai Pangea. Lantas, kurang lebih dua ratus juta th. waktu lalu Pangea terpecah jadi dua benua besar yakni Laurasia, yang saat ini terdiri dari Amerika Utara, Eropa, beberapa Asia Tengah serta Asia Timur; serta Gondwana yang terdiri dari Amerika Selatan, Afrika India, Australia serta sisi Asia yang lain. Bagian-bagian serta dua benua besar ini lantas terpecah-pecah, tenggelam dan bertubrukan dengan sisi lain.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [http://peritonealmesotheliomatreatment.com/] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [http://mesotheliomatreatmentnews.com/] Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Lan_Sipenyair/912820 Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6234654

Sejarah Terbentuknya Bumi

Sebagai rumah untuk makhluk hidup, bumi tersusun atas beberapa lapisan bumi. Beberapa bahan material pembentuk bumi, serta semua kekayaan alam yang terdapat di dalamnya. Bentuk permukaan bumi tidak sama, dari mulai daratan, lautan, pegunungan, perbukitan, danau, lembah, dsb. Bumi sebagai satu diantara planet yang termasuk juga dalam system tata surya di alam semesta ini tidak diam seperti apa yang kita prediksikan sejauh ini, tetapi bumi melakukan rotasi pada porosnya (perputaran) serta bergerak mengelilingi matahari (revolusi) sebagai pusat system tata surya. Perihal ini pula yang mengakibatkan terjadinya siang malam serta pasang surut air laut. Oleh sebab itu, proses terbentuknya bumi tidak lepas dari proses terbentuknya tata surya kita.

Pembentukan Bumi

Teori-teori mengenai proses terbentuknya bumi

Teori Kabut (Nebula)

Sejak zaman sebelum Masehi, beberapa pakar sudah memikirkan proses terjadinya Bumi. Salah satunya adalah teori kabut (nebula) yang dikemukakan oleh Immanuel Kant (1755) serta Piere De Laplace (1796). Mereka terkenal dengan Teori Kabut Kant-Laplace. Dalam teori ini dikemukakan kalau di jagat raya ada gas yang lantas berkumpul jadi kabut (nebula). Gaya tarik-menarik antar gas ini membentuk kumpulan kabut yang amat besar serta berputar makin cepat. Dalam proses rotasi yang amat cepat ini, materi kabut sisi khatulistiwa terlempar memisah serta memadat (lantaran pendinginan). Sisi yang terlempar inilah yang lantas jadi planet-planet dalam tata surya. Teori nebula ini terdiri dari beberapa step, yaitu:

  1. Matahari serta planet-planet yang lain masih tetap berupa gas, kabut yang sangat pekat dan besar.
  2. Kabut itu berputar serta berpilin dengan kuat, di mana pemadatan terjadi di pusat lingkaran yang lantas membentuk matahari. Pada saat yang bersamaan materi lain pun terbentuk jadi massa yang lebih kecil dari matahari yang disebut dengan sebagai planet, bergerak mengelilingi matahari.
  3. Materi-materi itu tumbuh semakin besar serta senantiasa melakukan gerakan secara teratur mengelilingi matahari dalam satu orbit yang tetap serta membentuk Susunan Keluarga Matahari.
    Teori Planetisimal

Pada awal era ke-20, Forest Ray Moulton, seorang pakar astronomi Amerika bersama rekannya Thomas C. Chamberlain, seorang pakar geologi, menyampaikan teori Planetisimal Hypothesis, yang menyampaikan matahari terdiri dari massa gas bermassa besar sekali, Pada sebuah ketika melintas bintang lain yang ukurannya nyaris sama juga dengan matahari, bintang itu melintas sangat dekat hingga nyaris terjadi tabrakan. Lantaran dekatnya lintasan dampak gaya gravitasi antara dua bintang itu menyebabkan tertariknya gas serta materi ringan di bagian pinggir.
Lantaran dampak gaya gravitasi itu beberapa materi terlempar meninggalkan permukaan matahari serta permukaan bintang. Materi-materi yang terlempar mulai berkurang serta membentuk gumpalan-gumpalan yang disebut dengan planetisimal. Planetisimal- Planetisimal lalu jadi dingin serta padat yang selanjutnya membentuk planet-planet yang mengelilingi matahari.

Teori Pasang Surut Gas (Tidal)

Teori ini dikemukakan oleh James Jeans serta Harold Jeffreys pada th. 1918, yaitu kalau satu bintang besar mendekati matahari dalam jarak pendek, hingga mengakibatkan terjadinya pasang surut pada tubuh matahari, ketika matahari itu masih ada dalam kondisi gas. Terjadinya pasang surut air laut yang kita kenal di Bumi, ukuranya amat kecil. Pemicunya yaitu kecilnya massa bulan serta jauhnya jarak bln. ke Bumi (60 kali radius orbit Bumi). Namun, bila satu bintang yang bermassa nyaris sama besar dengan matahari mendekat, bakal terbentuk sejenis gunung-gunung gelombang raksasa pada tubuh matahari, yang dipicu oleh gaya tarik bintang tadi. Gunung-gunung itu bakal meraih tinggi yang mengagumkan serta membentuk sejenis lidah pijar yang besar sekali, menjulur dari massa matahari serta merentang ke arah bintang besar itu.

Dalam lidah yang panas ini terjadi perapatan gas-gas dan pada akhirnya kolom-kolom ini bakal pecah, lantas berpisah jadi benda-benda tersendiri, yakni planet-planet. Bintang besar yang mengakibatkan penarikan pada bebrapa sisi tubuh matahari tadi, meneruskan perjalanan di jagat raya, hingga makin lama bakal hilang pengaruhnya terhadap-planet yang berupa tadi. Planet-planet itu bakal berputar mengelilingi matahari serta mengalami proses pendinginan. Proses pendinginan ini berjalan dengan lambat pada planet-planet besar, seperti Yupiter serta Saturnus, sedangkan pada planet-planet kecil seperti Bumi kita, pendinginan berjalan relatif lebih cepat.

Teori Bintang Kembar

Teori ini dikemukakan oleh seorang pakar Astronomi R. A Lyttleton. Menurut teori ini, galaksi datang dari kombinasi bintang kembar. Satu diantara bintang meledak hingga banyak material yang terlempar. Lantaran bintang yang tidak meledak memiliki gaya gravitasi yang masih kuat, sebaran pecahan ledakan bintang itu mengelilingi bintang yang tidak meledak itu. Bintang yang tidak meledak itu saat ini disebut juga dengan matahari, sedangkan pecahan bintang yang lain yaitu planet-planet yang mengelilinginya.

Teori Big Bang

Bersumber pada Theory Big Bang, proses terbentuknya bumi bermula dari beberapa puluh milyar th. waktu lalu. Awal mulanya ada gumpalan kabut raksasa yang berputar pada porosnya. Putaran itu memungkinkan beberapa sisi kecil serta ringan terlempar ke luar serta sisi besar berkumpul di pusat, membentuk cakram raksasa. Suatu ketika, gumpalan kabut raksasa itu meledak dengan dahsyat diluar angkasa yang lantas membentuk galaksi serta nebula-nebula. Sepanjang periode waktu kurang lebih 4, 6 milyar th., nebula-nebula itu membeku serta membentuk sebuah galaksi yang disebut juga nama Galaksi Bima Sakti, lantas membentuk system tata surya. Sementara itu, sisi ringan yang terlempar ke luar tadi mengalami kondensasi hingga membentuk gumpalan-gumpalan yang mendingin serta memadat. Lantas, gumpalan-gumpalan itu membentuk planet-planet, termasuk juga planet bumi.
Dalam perubahannya, planet bumi selalu mengalami proses secara bertahap sampai terbentuk seperti saat ini. Ada tiga step dalam proses pembentukan bumi, yakni:

  • Awalnya, bumi masih tetap merupakan planet homogen serta belum mengalami perlapisan atau ketidaksamaan unsur.
  • Pembentukan perlapisan struktur bumi yang diawali terlebih dulu dengan terjadinya diferensiasi. Material besi yang berat jenisnya semakin besar bakal terbenam, sedangkan yang berat jenisnya lebih ringan bakal bergerak ke permukaan.

Bumi terbagi jadi lima lapisan, yakni inti dalam, inti luar, mantel dalam, mantel luar, serta kerak bumi.

Bukti penting lain untuk Big Bang yaitu jumlah hidrogen serta helium di ruang angkasa. Dalam berbagai riset, di ketahui kalau konsentrasi hidrogen-helium di alam semesta bersesuaian dengan perhitungan teoritis konsentrasi hidrogen-helium sisa peninggalan peristiwa Big Bang. Bila alam semesta tidak mempunyai permulaan apabila ia sudah ada mulai sejak dahulu kala, unsur hidrogen ini semestinya sudah habis sekalipun serta berubah jadi helium.
Semua bukti memberikan keyakinan ini mengakibatkan teori Big Bang di terima oleh orang-orang ilmiah. Model Big Bang yaitu titik paling akhir yang dicapai ilmu dan pengetahuan mengenai asal muasal alam semesta.

Begitulah, alam semesta ini telah di ciptakan oleh Allah Yang Maha Perkasa dengan sempurna tanpa cacat.
Yang telah menciptakan tujuh langit berlapis-lapis. Kamu sekali-kali tidak melihat pada ciptaan Tuhan Yang Maha Pemurah sesuatu yang tidak seimbang. lihtatlah berulang-ulang, adakah kamu lihat sesuatu yang tidak seimbang. (QS. Al-Mulk, 67 : 3).

Masihlah amat banyak teori yang lain yang Dikemukakan oleh beberapa pakar seperti:

  • Teori Buffon dari ahli pengetahuan alam Perancis George Louis Leelere Comte de Buffon. Beliau menyampaikan kalau jaman dulu terjadi tumbukan antara matahari dengan satu komet yang mengakibatkan beberapa massa matahari terpental ke luar. Massa yang terpental ini jadi planet.
  • Teori Kuiper atau teori kondensasi dikemukakan oleh Gerald P. Kuiper menyampaikan kalau pada awalnya ada nebula besar berbentuk piringan cakram. Pusat piringan yaitu protomatahari, sedangkan massa gas yang berputar mengelilingi promatahari yaitu protoplanet. Pusat piringan yang merupakan protomatahari jadi amat panas, sedangkan protoplanet jadi dingin. Unsur ringan itu menguap serta menggumpal jadi planet – planet. Dalam teorinya beliau juga menyampaikan kalau tata surya pada awalnya berbentuk bola kabut raksasa. Kabut ini terdiri dari debu, es, serta gas. Bola kabut ini berputar pada porosnya hingga bebrapa sisi yang ringan terlempar ke luar, sedangkan sisi yang berat berkumpul di pusatnya membentuk satu cakram mulai berkurang serta rotasinya makin cepat, dan suhunya bertambah, pada akhirnya terbentuklah matahari.
    Teori Weizsaecker di mana pada th. 1940, C. Von Weizsaecker, seorang pakar astronomi Jerman menyampaikan tata surya pada awalnya terdiri atas matahari yang dikelilingi oleh massa kabut gas. Beberapa massa kabut gas ini terdiri atas unsur ringan, yakni hidrogen serta helium. Lantaran panas matahari yang amat tinggi, unsur enteng itu menguap ke angkasa tata surya, sedangkan unsur yang lebih berat tertinggal serta menggumpal. Gumpalan ini bakal menarik unsur – unsur lain yang ada di angkasa tata surya dan berikutnya berevolusi membentuk palnet – planet, termasuk juga bumi.
  • Teori Whipple oleh seorang pakar astronom Amerika Fred L. Whipple, menyampaikan pada awalnya tata surya terdiri dari gas serta kabut debu kosmis yang berotasi membentuk sejenis piringan. Debu serta gas yang berotasi mengakibatkan terjadinya pemekatan massa serta pada akhirnya menggumpal jadi padat, sedangkan kabutnya hilang menguap ke angkasa. Gumpalan yang padat sama-sama bertabrakan serta lantas membentuk planet – planet.

Menurut seorang astronom asal inggris, pada pertengahan era ke-20 yang bernama Sir Fred Hoyle menyampaikan sebuah teori yang disebut dengan “Steady-State”. Teori steady-state menyebutkan kalau alam semesta memiliki ukuran tak terhingga serta kekal sepanjang masa. Dengan maksud mempertahankan paham materialis, teori ini sekalipun berseberangan dengan teori Big Bang, yang menyampaikan kalau alam semesta mempunyai permulaan. Mereka yang mempertahankan teori steady-state sudah lama menentang teori Big Bang. Tetapi, ilmu dan pengetahuan malah meruntuhkan pandangan mereka.

Pada th. 1948, Gerge Gamov muncul dengan ide lain mengenai Big Bang. Ia menyampaikan kalau sesudah pembentukan alam semesta lewat ledakan raksasa, sisa radiasi yang ditinggalkan oleh ledakan ini mestinya ada di alam. Tidak hanya itu, radiasi ini sebaiknya menyebar rata di seluruh penjuru alam semesta. Bukti yang ‘seharusnya ada’ ini selanjutnya diketahui. Pada th. 1965, dua peneliti bernama Arno Penziaz serta Robert Wilson menemukan gelombang ini tanpa sengaja. Radiasi ini, yang disebut dengan ‘radiasi latar kosmis’, tidak tampak memancar dari satu sumber spesifik, akan tetapi mencakup keseluruhan ruang angkasa. Demikianlah, di ketahui kalau radiasi ini yaitu sisa radiasi peninggalan dari bagian awal peristiwa Big Bang. Penzias serta Wilson dianugerahi hadiah Nobel untuk penemuan mereka. Pada th. 1989, NASA mengirimkan satelit Cosmic Background Explorer. COBE ke ruang angkasa untuk melakukan riset mengenai radiasi latar kosmis. Cuma butuh 8 menit untuk COBE untuk menunjukkan perhitungan Penziaz serta Wilson. COBE sudah menemukan sisa ledakan raksasa yang sudah terjadi di awal pembentukan alam semesta. Dinyatakan sebagai penemuan astronomi paling besar sepanjang masa, penemuan ini dengan jelas menunjukkan teori Big Bang.

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