sejarah bahasa indonesia

Sejarah Perkembangan Bahasa Indonesia dari Zaman Pra Kemerdekaan

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Although it offers nearly 200 degrees and certificates, the school’s most popular programs include business administration, criminal justice, general studies, sports and health sciences, psychology, and homeland security. With courses starting on the first Monday of every month and lasting either 8 or 16 weeks, there’s no need to wait for a new semester to begin, earning APUS a top spot in our fast online degree rankings. Net Price: $9,572/yr Score: 70.60 American InterContinental University Fast Online Degrees Accredited, fast online degrees are in abundance at AIU, which offers programs in everything from business to web design. 3. AMERICAN INTERCONTINENTAL UNIVERSITY-ONLINE Website In addition to the career-focused fields found at other online schools – business, criminal justice, IT, education, and healthcare – AIU also has several degrees in design fields, making it a great choice for students who want to blend vocational skills and artistic vision. 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Experienced designers can also take quick professional development courses in Photoshop and other specific skills without pursuing an entire degree. This makes Sessions a standout among the many online colleges that offer more traditional programs in professional fields like business, teaching, or information technology. While Sessions offers numerous certificates and associates degrees, students can also earn credits that transfer to bachelor’s degrees at Excelsior College. All courses have three different start dates a year – January, May and September – giving you plenty of flexibility when planning your schedule. Net Price: $12,352/yr Score: 74.74 American Broadcasting School Fast Online Degrees The American Broadcasting School is #1 on this fast online degree ranking and undoubtedly the best option for aspiring journalists. 1. AMERICAN BROADCASTING SCHOOL Website Granting an inexpensive, fast online degree in radio broadcasting, this school offers a fast track to careers in news, sports, talk, or music radio, as well as other creative voice opportunities. The entire program takes just over eight months to complete (71% of students graduate), uses exclusively one-on-one instruction, and allows you to work at your own pace. You’ll get all the software and equipment you need (as long as you provide your own computer) and personalized vocal coaching. Starting in your very first week, you’ll have the opportunity to record your own radio shows and receive live critiques from professional instructors. Because success in broadcasting requires more than just talent, you’ll also learn digital production, marketing, and other tools of the broadcasting trade. Looking to enroll quickly? You can begin on any Monday of the year! Net Price: $9,459/yr Score: 82.13 See our methodology page for more information about how we calculated this ranking.* *For this ranking, we added an extra feature to the standard methodology. Because we wanted to focus specifically on “speed” rather than general measures of quality, we custom-designed a scale to rank schools based on this highly desirable “fast factor.” Specifically, we researched each online college and asked ourselves the following questions: Does the school offer bachelor’s degrees that one could complete in less than four years? What about associate’s degrees in less than two years? Are there many short certificate options for students who want to quickly augment their skills in an established field? Are there “accelerated” degree paths and options for students who want to earn a combined bachelor’s/master’s degree? Does the school offer credit for life/work experience and past academic coursework in order to help students move ahead on their degree path? Does the school offer multiple course formats so that students have the option to start several times a year and/or to choose between classes of varying lengths? But don’t worry – we still considered graduation rate and tuition costs as well! We hope this has been helpful in providing information about fast online degrees from accredited colleges. There are many fast online degree programs available, and we encourage you to do a broad search to find the program that’s best for you. THIS CONCLUDES OUR RANKING OF THE BEST VALUES IN FAST ONLINE DEGREES. Sources: College Navigator By CVO Staff Published March 2016 https://www.collegevaluesonline.com/rankings/fast-online-degrees-best-values/

Sejarah Bahasa Indonesia

Awalnya, Bahasa Indonesia berasal dari Bahasa Melayu. Pada era Sriwijaya, Bahasa Melayu digunakan sebagai bahasa penghubung antar suku di Nusantara serta sebagai bahasa yang digunakan oleh para pedagang dari dalam Nusantara serta dari luar Nusantara.
Perubahan dan perkembangan Bahasa Melayu tampak lebih jelas dari beragam peninggalan-peninggalan contohnya :

1. Tulisan yang terdapat pada batu Nisan di Minye Tujoh, Aceh pada tahun 1380.
2. Prasasti Kedukan Bukit, di Palembang pada tahun 683 M.
3. Prasasti Talang Tuo, di Palembang pada Tahun 684 M.
4. Prasasti Kota Kapur, di Bangka Barat, pada Tahun 686 M.
5. Prasati Karang Brahi Bangko, Merangi, Jambi, pada Tahun 688 M.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [http://peritonealmesotheliomatreatment.com/] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [http://mesotheliomatreatmentnews.com/] Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Lan_Sipenyair/912820 Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6234654

Dan pada saat itu Bahasa Melayu telah berfungsi sebagai:

1. Bahasa kebudayaan yaitu bahasa buku-buku yang berisia aturan-aturan hidup dan sastra.
2. Bahasa perhubungan (Lingua Franca) antar suku di indonesia
3. Bahasa perdagangan baik bagi suku yang ada di Indonesia maupun pedagang yang berasal dari luar Indonesia.

Bahasa Resmi Kerajaan.

Bahasa Melayu menyebar ke pelosok Nusantara bertepatan dengan menyebarnya agama Islam di wilayah Nusantara, dan semakin berkembang serta bertambah kokoh keberadaannya karena Bahasa Melayu mudah diterima oleh masyarakat Nusantara sebagai bahasa perhubungan antar pulau, antar suku, antar pedagang, antar bangsa serta antar kerajaan.

Perkembangan Bahasa Melayu di wilayah Nusantara memengaruhi serta mendorong tumbuhnya rasa persaudaraan serta rasa persatuan bangsa Indonesia, oleh karena itu beberapa pemuda Indonesia yang tergabung dalam perkumpulan gerakan secara sadar mengangkat Bahasa Melayu menjadi bahasa indonesia menjadi bahasa persatuan untuk semua bangsa Indonesia. (Sumpah Pemuda, 28 Oktober 1928).

Perkembangan Bahasa Indonesia Sesudah Merdeka

sejarah bahasa indonesai

Bahasa Indonesia lahir pada tanggal 28 Oktober 1928. Ketika itu, beberapa pemuda dari beragam pelosok Nusantara berkumpul dalam rapat, beberapa pemuda berikrar:

1. Kami Putra dan Putri Indonesia mengaku bertumpah darah yang satu, Tanah Air Indonesia.
2. Kami Putra dan Putri Indonesia mengaku berbangsa yang satu, Bangsa Indonesia.
3. Kami Putra dan Putri Indonesia mengaku menjunjung tinggi bahasa persatuan, bahasa Indonesia.

Ikrar beberapa pemuda ini dikenal dengan nama “Sumpah Pemuda”. Unsur ketiga dari “Sumpah Pemuda” adalah pernyataan bahwa bahasa indonesia adalah bahasa persatuan bangsa Indonesia. Pada tahun 1928 Bahasa Indonesia dikokohkan kedudukannya sebagai bahasa nasional. Bahasa Indonesia dinyatakan kedudukannya sebagai bahasa negara pada tanggal 18 Agustus 1945, karena ketika itu Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 disahkan sebagai Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia.

Di dalam UUD 1945 dikatakan bahwa “Bahasa Negara Adalah Bahasa Indonesia, (pasal 36). Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945, sudah mengukuhkan kedudukan serta manfaat Bahasa Indonesia secara konstitusional sebagai bahasa negara. Saat ini Bahasa Indonesia digunakan oleh beragam lapisan masyarakat Indonesia.

Baca juga: Pengertian Bahasa

Peresmian Nama Bahasa Indonesia

Bahasa Indonesia yaitu bahasa resmi Republik Indonesia serta bahasa persatuan bangsa Indonesia. Bahasa indonesia diresmikan penggunaannya sesudah Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, tepatnya satu hari setelahnya, bertepatan dengan mulai berlakunya konstitusi. Di Timor Leste, Bahasa Indonesia berposisi sebagi bahasa kerja. Dari sudut pandang Linguistik, Bahasa indonesia yaitu satu diantara banyak macam Bahasa Melayu. Dasar yang digunakan yaitu bahasa Melayu-Riau dari era ke-19.

Dalam perubahannya ia alami pergantian akibat penggunaannya sebagai bahasa kerja di lingkungan administrasi kolonial serta beragam sistem pembakuan awal era ke-20. Penamaan “Bahasa Indonesia” dimulai sejak dicanangkannya Sumpah Pemuda 28 Oktober 1928, untuk menjauhkan kesan “Imperialisme Bahasa” jika nama Bahasa Melayu tetap digunakan.

Sistem ini membawa dampak berbedanya Bahasa Indonesia sekarang dari varian Bahasa Melayu yang digunakan di Riau ataupun semenanjung Malaya. Sampai sekarang, Bahasa Indonesia adalah bahasa yang hidup, yang selalu membuahkan kalimat baru, baik melalui penciptaan ataupun penyerapan dari bahasa daerah serta bahasa asing.

Meskipun dimengerti serta dituturkan oleh lebih dari 90% warga Indonesia, Bahasa Indonesia bukan bahasa ibu bagi kebanyakan penuturnya. Beberapa warga Indonesia memakai salah satu dari 748 bahasa yang ada di Indonesia sebagai bahasa ibu. Penutur Bahasa Indonesia sering kali memakai versi keseharian (kolokial) atau mengkombinasikan dengan dialek Melayu yang lain atau bahasa Ibunya.

Walau demikian, Bahasa Indonesia digunakan amat luas di perguruan-perguruan. Di media massa, sastra, perangkat lunak, surat-menyurat resmi, serta beragam komunitas umum yang lain, hingga dapat dikatakan kalau Bahasa Indonesia digunakan oleh seluruh warga Indonesia. Bahasa Melayu digunakan pada banyak wilayah Nusantara dan semakin berkembang serta bertambah kukuh keberadaannya.

Bahasa Melayu yang digunakan di wilayah Nusantara dalam perkembangannya dipengaruhi oleh corak budaya daerah. Bahasa Melayu menyerap kosakata dari beragam bahasa, khususnya dari bahasa Sanskerta, bahasa Persia, bahasa Arab, serta beberapa bahasa Eropa.

Perubahan Bahasa Melayu di wilayah Nusantara memengaruhi dan mendorong tumbuhnya rasa persaudaraan serta persatuan bangsa Indonesia. Komunikasi rasa persaudaraan serta persatuan bangsa Indonesia.

Komunikasi antar perkumpulan yang bangkit pada saat itu memakai Bahasa Melayu menjadi Bahasa Indonesia, sebagai bahasa persatuan untuk seluruh bangsa Indonesia dalam Sumpah Pemuda 28 Oktober 1928. Untuk memperoleh bahasa nasionalnya, bangsa Indonesia harus berjuang dalam tempo yang cukup panjang serta penuh dengan tantangan.

Perjuangan tersebut harus dilaksanakan karena terdapatnya kesadaran bahwa di samping manfaatnya sebagai alat komunikasi tunggal, bahasa nasional sebagai salah satu ciri kultural, yang memperlihatkan kesatuan serta menjelaskan perbedaan dengan bangsa lain.

Ada empat faktor yang menyebabkan Bahasa Melayu diangkat menjadi Bahasa Indonesia, yaitu:

1. Bahasa Melayu adalah merupakan Lingua Franca di Indonesia, bahasa perhubungan dan bahasa perdagangan.
2. Sistem Bahasa Melayu sederhana, mudah di pelajari karena dalam bahasa melayu tidak di kenal tingkatan bahasa (bahasa kasar dan bahasa halus).
3. Suku Jawa, suku Sunda, dan suku-suku lainnya dengan sukarela menerima Bahasa Melayu menjadi Bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa nasional.
4. Bahasa Melayu mempunyai kesanggupan untuk dipakai sebagai bahasa kebudayaan dalam arti yang luas.

Kedudukan Bahasa Indonesia Sebagai Bahasa Nasional dan Bahasa Negara Berserta Fungsinya

sejarah bahasa indonesai

Sebagai Bahasa Nasional.

Tanggal 28 Oktober 1928, pada hari “Sumpah Pemuda” lebih tepatnya, dinyatakan kedudukan Bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa nasional memilki fungsi-fungsi sebagai berikut :

1. Bahasa Indonesia sebagai identitas nasional.
2. Bahasa Indonesia sebagai kebanggaan bangsa.
3. Bahasa Indonesia sebagai alat komunikasi.
4. Bahasa Indonesia sebagai pemersatu bangsa yang berbeda suku, agama, ras, adat istiadat dan budaya.

Adapun penjelasanya :

1. Bahasa Indonesia sebagai Identitas Nasional.

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