Sejarah Kerajaan Islam di Indonesia

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Sejarah Kerajaan Islam di Indonesia Selamat datang di Lahiya, situs (blog) sederhana yang berbagi ilmu dan pengetahuan dengan penuh keikhlasan. Dan, pada kesempatan kali ini, kami bakal sharing pengetahuan mengenai Sejarah Kerajaan Islam di Indonesia, dan tak perlu lama-lama ya, langsung saja kita masuk ke pembahasan kali ini

Kerajaan Mataram Islam

Berikut ini biodata Kerajaan Mataram Islam:

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [] Article Source: Article Source:
  • Timbulnya – Ki Ageng Pamanahan serta putranya Sutawijaya diberikan tanah (Mataram) oleh Jaka Tingkir.
  • Waktunya – 1586 M (Abad ke-XVI M).
  • Letaknya – Kota Gede, Yogyakarta.
  • Rajanya:
  1. Panembahan Senopati (pendiri Mataram Islam).
  2. Raden Mas Jolang Sultan Agung (Mataram mencapai puncak kejayaannya).
  3. Amangkurat I (Mataram mulai merosot)
  4. Amangkurat II

Runtuhnya Kerajaan Mataram Islam dikarenakan oleh Perjanjian Giyanti yakni Mataram dibagi jadi 2 yakni Kasultanan Yogyakarta pada Hamengkubuwono I serta kesuhunan Surakarta pada Pakubuwono III. Lantas dilakukan Perjanjian Salatiga yang membagi Mataram jadi 4 yakni Kesultanan Yogyakarta, Kesuhunan Surakarta, Pakualaman serta Mangkunegaran.

Banyak versi tentang masa-masa awal berdirinya kerajaan Mataram bersumber pada mitos serta legenda. Biasanya beberapa versi itu mengaitkannya dengan kerajaan-kerajaan terdahulu, seperti Demak serta Pajang. Menurut satu diantara versi, sesudah Demak mengalami kemunduran, ibukotanya dipindahkan ke Pajang serta mulailah pemerintahan Pajang sebagai kerajaan.

Selama pemerintahannya bisa dikatakan terus-menerus berperang menundukkan bupati-bupati daerah. Kasultanan Demak menyerah, Panaraga, Pasuruan, Kediri, Surabaya, berturut-turut direbut. Cirebon juga ada dibawah pengaruhnya. Panembahan Senapati dalam babad dipuji sebagai pembangun Mataram.

Senapati digantikan oleh putranya, Mas Jolang, yang bertahta th. 1601-1613. Maas Jolang lebih di kenal dengan sebutan Panembahan Seda Krapyak. Pada masa-masa pemerintahannya, di bangun taman Danalaya di bagian barat kraton.

Letak Kerajaan

Kerajaan Gowa serta Tallo lebih di kenal dengan sebutan Kerajaan Makassar. Kerajaan ini terdapat di daerah Sulawesi Selatan. Secara geografis Sulawesi Selatan mempunyai posisi yang penting, lantaran dekat dengan jalur pelayaran perdagangan Nusantara. Bahkan juga daerah Makassar jadi pusat persinggahan beberapa pedagang, baik yang datang dari Indonesia sisi timur ataupun beberapa pedagang yang datang dari daerah Indonesia sisi barat. Dengan letak seperti ini menyebabkan Kerajaan Makassar berkembang jadi kerajaan besar serta berkuasa atas jalur perdagangan Nusantara.

Kehidupan Politik

Perkembangan pesat Kerajaan Makassar tidak lepas dari raja-raja yang pernah memertntah seperti:

  • Raja Alaudin Dalam abad ke-17 M, agama Islam berkembang cukup pesat di Sulawesi Selatan. Raja Makassar yang pertama memeluk agama Islam bernama Raja Alaudin yang memerintah Makassar dari th. 1591-1638 M. Dibawah pemerintahannya, Kerajaan Makassar mulai terjun dalam dunia pelayaran-perdagangan (dunia maritim). Perkembangan ini mengakibatkan meningkatnya kesejahteraan rakyat Kerajaan Makassar. Tetapi setelah meninggal dunianya Raja Alauddin, kondisi pemerintahan kerajaan tidak bisa di ketahui dengan pasti.
  • Sultan Hasanuddin Pada masa-masa pemerintahan Sultan Hasanuddin, Kerajaan Makassar mencapai masa-masa kejayaannya. Dalam waktu yang cukup singkat, Kerajaan Makassar sudah sukses menguasai nyaris semua wilayah Sulawesi Selatan. Harapan Sultan Hasanuddin untuk menguasai seutuhnya jalur perdagang-an Nusantara, mendorong perluasan ke-kuasannya ke kepulauan Nusa Tenggara, seperti Sumbawa serta beberapa Flores. Dengan hal tersebut, semua kegiatan pelayaran perdagangan yang lewat Laut Flores mesti berkunjung lebih dahulu di ibukota Kerajaan Makassar.

Kondisi seperti itu ditentang oleh Belanda yang mempunyai daerah kekuasaan di Maluku dengan pusatnya Ambon. Hubungan Batavia dengan Ambon terhambat oleh kekuasaan Kerajaan Makassar. Pertentangan pada Makassar serta Belanda kerap menyebabkan peperangan. Keberanian Sultan Hasanuddin memimpin pasukan Kerajaan Makassar untuk memporak-porandakan pasukan Belanda di Maluku, menyebabkan Belanda makin tertekan. Atas keberaniannya, Belanda berikan julukan pada Sultan Hasanuddin dengan sebutan ” Ayam Jantan dari Timur “.

Dalam usaha menguasai Kerajaan Makassar, Belanda merajut hubungan dengan Kerajaan Bone, dengan rajanya Arung Palaka. Dengan pertolongan Arung Palaka, pasukan Belanda sukses mendesak Kerajaan Makassar serta menguasai ibukota kerajaan. Akhimya dilanjutkan dengan Perjanjian Bongaya (1667 M).

Mapasomba Sesudah Sultan Hasanuddin turun tahta, ia digantikan oleh putranya yang bernama Mapasomba. Sultan Hasanuddin amat berharap supaya Mapasomba bisa bekerja sama dengan Belanda. Maksudnya supaya Kerajaan Makassar tetap bisa bertahan. Nyatanya Mapasomba jauh lebih keras dari ayahnya hingga Belanda mengerahkan pasukan secara besar-besaran untuk menghadapi Mapasomba. Pasukan Mapasomba sukses dihancurkan serta ia tidak di ketahui nasibnya. Dengan kemenangan itu, pada akhirnya Belanda berkuasa atas Kerajaan Makassar.

Ternate adalah kerajaan Islam di timur yang berdiri pada abad ke-13 dengan raja Zainal Abidin (1486-1500). Zainal Abidin yaitu murid dari Sunan Giri di Kerajaan Demak. Kerajaan Tidore berdiri di pulau yang lain dengan Sultan Mansur sebagai raja.  

Kerajaan yang terdapat di Indonesia Timur jadi incaran beberapa pedagang lantaran Maluku kaya akan rempah-rempah. Kerajaan Ternate cepat berkembang karena hasil rempah-rempah terlebih cengkih.


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