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Sejarah Pramuka di Dunia dan Kepramukaan di Indonesia

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Jika kita mempelajari sejarah pendidikan pramuka, kita tidak dapat pisahkan dari kehidupan pendiri gerakan Pramuka dunia, yaitu Lord Robert Baden Powell Gilwell.

Hal ini karena pengalaman beliaulah yang mendasari pemuda di negara Inggris. Inilah kemudian berkembang menjadi gerakan kepanduan atau pramuka.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [http://peritonealmesotheliomatreatment.com/] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [http://mesotheliomatreatmentnews.com/] Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Lan_Sipenyair/912820 Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6234654

Riwayat Baden Powell

robert boden powell

 

Lahir pada tanggal 22 April 1857 dengan nama Robert Stephenson Smyth. Ayahnya bernama powell, seorang professor geometri di Universitas Oxford, yang meninggal ketika Stephenson masih kecil.

Pengalaman Baden Powell yang mendasari gerakan pramuka sangat banyak, diantaranya

1. Karena ditinggal ayahnya sejak masa kanak-kanak, akhirnya Powel mendapatkan pembinaan dari sosok ibunya.

2. Dari kakaknya mendapat pelatihan keterampilan berlayar, berenang, berkemah, olahraga, dan lain-lain.

3. Sifat Baden Powell yang sangat cerdas, menyenangkan, lucu, suka bermain musik, tindakan, olahraga, mengarang dan menggambar begitu disukai teman-temannya.

4. Pengalaman Powel di India sebagai pembantu letnan di resimen 13 kavaleri yang berhasil mengikuti jejak kuda yang telah hilang di puncak gunung. Ia juga berhasil melatih kemampuan panca indera dari Kimball O’Hara.

5. Pernah dikepun bangsa Boer di kota Mafeking, Afrika Selatan selama 127 hari dan kekurangan makanan.

6. Memiliki pengalaman saat menglahkan Kekaisaran Zulu di Afrika dan mengambil kalung manik-manik kayu milik raja Dinizulu.

Pengalaman ini kemudian ditulis dalam sebuah buku berjudul “Aids to Scouting” yang merupakan panduan untuk tentara muda Inggris Raya dalam melaksanakan tugas penyelidikan. Boden Powel pun diminta Wiliam Smyth, seorang pemimpin Boys Brigade di Inggris, untuk melatih anggota sesuai pengalaman Powel. Anggota Boys Brigade sebanyak 21 orang dari berbagai wilayah Inggris itu pun diajak berkemah dan berlatih di Pulau Browns Sea pada tanggal 25 Juli 1907 selama 8 hari.

1910 BP pensiun dari Angkatan Darat dengan pangkat Letnan Jenderal. Pada tahun 1912 menikah dengan Ovale St. Clair Soames dan dianugerahi tiga orang anak. Ia mendapat gelar Lord dari King George di 1929 Baden Powell sebelum akhirnya meninggal pada 8 Januari 1941 di Nyeri, Kenya, Afrika.

Sejarah Dunia Pramuka

en.wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org

 

Dimulai pada tahun 1908, Baden Powell menulis pengalamannya untuk kegiatan Pramuka yang dirintisnya. Kumpulan tulisannya dibuat sebuah buku dengan judul “Scouting for Boys”. Buku ini dengan cepat menyebar di Inggris dan negara-negara lain yang kemudian berdiri organisasi pramuka yang awalnya hanya untuk laki-laki dengan nama Boys Scout.

Pada tahun 1912 dengan bantuan adik perempuannya, Agnes, didirikanlah organisasi kepramukaan untuk wanita dengan nama Girls Guides yang kemudian diteruskan oleh istri Powel.

Pada 1916 berdiri kelompok pramuka usia siaga dengan nama CUB (anak serigala) dengan buku The Jungle Book karya Rudyard Kipling sebagai panduan kegiatan. Buku ini menceritakan kisah dari Mowgli yang hidup di hutan dan dipelihara oleh serigala.

Pada 1918 ia membentuk Rover Scout bagi mereka yang telah berusia 17 tahun. Pada 1922, ia menerbitkan bukunya Rovering to Success (Mengembara ke Arah Bahagia). Buku ini menggambarkan seorang pemuda yang harus mendayung sampannya menuju ke pantai bahagia.

Tahun 1920-an diadakan Jambore dunia pertama di Olympia Hall, London. Ia mengundang Pramuka dari 27 negara dan pada saat itu Baden Powell diangkat sebagai Chief Scout of The World (kepala Pramuka dunia).

  • Tahun 1924 Jambore II di Ermelunden, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Tahun 1929 Jambore III di Arrow Park, Birkenhead, Inggris
  • Tahun 1933 Jambore IV di Godollo, Budapest, Hongaria
  • Tahun 1937 Jambore V di Vogelenzang, Blomendaal, Belanda
  • Tahun 1947 Jambore VI di Moisson, Perancis
  • Tahun 1951 Jambore VII di Salz Kamergut, Austria
  • Tahun 1955 Jambore VIII di sutton Park, Sutton Coldfild, Inggris
  • Tahun 1959 Jambore IX di Makiling, Philipina
  • Tahun 1963 Jambore X di Marathon, Yunani
  • Tahun 1967 Jambore XI di Idaho, Amerika Serikat
  • Tahun 1971 Jambore XII di Asagiri, Jepang
  • Tahun 1975 Jambore XIII di Lillehammer, Norwegia
  • Tahun 1979 Jambore XIV di Neishaboor, Iran tetapi dibatalkan
  • Tahun 1983 Jambore XV di Kananaskis, Alberta, Kanada
  • Tahun 1987 Jambore XVI di Cataract Scout Park, Australia
  • Tahun 1991 Jambore XVII di Korea Selatan
  • Tahun 1995 Jambore XVIII di Belanda
  • Tahun 1999 Jambore XIX di Chili, Amerika Selatan
  • Tahun 2003 Jambore XX di Thailand

Pada tahun 1914 ia menulis petunjuk untuk Kursus Pembina Pramuka dan baru diwujudkan pada 1919. Dari temannya yang bernama W. F. de Bois Maclarren, ia mendapat sebidang tanah di Chingford yang kemudian digunakan sebagai tempat pendidikan Pembina Pramuka dengan nama Gilwell Park.

Pada tahun 1920 dibentuklah dewan internasional yang bersi sembilan anggota dan berkantor sekretariatnya di London, Kerajaan Inggris. Dan pada 1958 Biro Pramuka dunia dipindahkan dari London ke Ottawa, Kanada. Pada tanggal 1 Mei 1968 dunia Pramuka Biro pindah lagi ke Jenewa, Swiss.

Biro Pramuka dunia memiliki 5 kantor, yaitu Kosta Rika, Mesir, Filipina, Swiss dan Nigeria. Sementara Pramuka Biro putri, bermarkas di London dengan 5 kantor di daerah Eropa, Asia Pasifik, Arab, Afrika dan Amerika Latin.

Sejarah lahirnya pramuka di Indonesia

Sejarah-Lahirnya-Gerakan-Pramuka-di-Indonesia
http://www.portalsejarah.com/

 

Sejarah dari lahirnya gerakan Pramuka di Indonesia dimulai saat Indonesia dijajah oleh Belanda. Awal gerakan Pramuka ini berasal dari berdirinya cabang Nederlandsche Padvinders Bestuur (NPO) yang kemudian berubah nama menjadi Nederlands Indische Padvinders. Bapak Kepanduan Indonesia adalah Mangkunegara S.P. yang memprakarsai berdirinya organisasi Kepanduan milik Indonesia pada 1916.

Pada masa penjajahan Jepang, gerakan ini dibubarkan karena Jepang tidak menginginkan adanya sebuah organisasi yang dibuat tanpa campur tangan Jepang. Setelah Jepang pergi, gerakan Pramuka di Indonesia kembali aktif dan baru dibentuk sebagai Pramuka pada tahun 1961. Komite untuk pembentukan gerakan Pramuka sendiri baru saja membuat keputusannya pada 1961 melalui Keputusan Presiden Nomor 121 1961 11 April 1961.

Sejarah Gerakan Pramuka pada Masa Penjajahan

Gerakan Pramuka Indonesia awal ditandai dengan munculnya cabang Nederlandsche Padvinders Bestuur (NPO) pada tahun 1912. Organisasi baru yang lahir ada pada tahun 1910 ini mampu mempertahankan keberadaannya hingga pecah Perang Dunia I. dengan alasan NPO memiliki kwartitr besar sendiri, mereka kemudian memutuskan untuk mengubah nama mereka pada 1916 dan menjadi Nederlands Indische Padvinders Vereeniging (NIVP).

Pada tahun yang sama, S.P. Mangkunegara VII berencana untuk membuat kepanduan sendiri. Organisasi mereka diberi nama Javaansche Padvinders Bestuur (JPO) dan menjadi organisasi kepanduan pertama di Nusantara.
Lahirnya organisasi-organsasi Pramuka juga memicu gerakan nasional lainnya. Di tempat lain, organisasi kepanduan milik Muhammadiyah bernama Padvinder Muhammadiyah mengubah namanya menjadi Hizbul Watan pada 1920.

Selain Muhammadiyah, ada juga kepanduan milik Boedi Oetomo, yaitu Padvinderij Nationale, Syarikat Islam Afdeling Padvinderij milik Syarikat Islam yang namanya kemudian berubah menjadi Syarikat Islam Afdeling Pandu (SIAP), Nationale Islamietische Padvinderij (NATIPIJ) yang berdiri berkat Jong Islamieten Bond, dan yang terakhir adalah Indonesisch Nationale Padvinders Bestuur (INPO) yang berhutang budi kepada kaum muda Indonesia pada proses berdirinya.

Pada tanggal 23 Mei 1928, rasa kesatuan yang muncul dalam organisasi Kepanduan di Indonesia mulai memanifestasikan dirinya dengan nama “Persaudaraan antara Pandu Indonesia” (PAPI) yang beranggotakanh INPO, SIAP, NATIPIJ, dan PPS.

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