Sistem Imunitas Tubuh Manusia

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Are you wondering about the fastest way to get a degree online? Fast online degrees can offer considerable value to today’s student. Not everyone has the luxury of attending school for four years in one stretch – much less to immediately jump into a graduate program for an additional multi-year commitment! From working professionals to busy parents to older adults finally fulfilling their academic goals, there are plenty of nontraditional students out there who have limits on their study time. Thankfully, online colleges cater to this restriction by helping their students learn efficiently, quickly, and conveniently. We’ve listed some of the very best (and most affordable) below. In this ranking, we examine the best value colleges for fast online degrees. Allied American University Fast Online Degrees The fast online degree programs at AAU include numerous certificate options with a quick turnaround. 10. ALLIED AMERICAN UNIVERSITY Website At AAU you can earn an associate’s or bachelor’s degree in business administration, criminal justice, general studies, or medical office management. There are additional certificate options for students seeking jobs in the rapidly growing healthcare field: medical administrative assisting, medical billing, medical coding, and pharmacy technician among them. AAU has a special commitment to serving the military, including benefits such as a no-fee transcript evaluation to see how many of your credits will transfer; military members may also be eligible for textbook grants! AAU sometimes accepts transfer credits from advanced high school programs (AP and CLEP) and other industry and military certifications. Between this and the optional 8-week class schedule (with multiple start dates) AAU is one of the best fast online degrees for motivated students. Net Price: $14,898/yr Score: 58.75 Trident University International Fast Online Degrees With a “Fastrac” program and transfer credit options, TUI has some of the best fast online degree options in the country. 9. TRIDENT UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL Website Trident was the first fully online university to be accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. Catering to military veterans and adult learners, its accelerated “Fastrac” program lets you complete courses in just eight weeks, with new sessions starting every month. The Trident Learning Model uses case-based learning instead of traditional tests, with the goal of developing critical thinking and problem-solving skills. You can get a bachelor’s, master’s, or even doctoral degree online in a career-focused field like business, technology, or health sciences. Already have your associate’s degree from a community college? Trident will evaluate your credits and apply them toward your bachelor’s. With tuition breaks for military spouses and dependents, Trident offers affordable fast online degrees to a range of students. Net Price: $11,572/yr Score: 58.85 New England College of Business and Finance Fast Online Degrees Previous jobs, military experience, and past academic coursework will all earn students credit toward the affordable, fast online degree programs at NECB. 8. NEW ENGLAND COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND FINANCE Website Offering accredited fast online degrees for working professionals, this Boston-based school incorporates group projects into its industry-relevant curriculum. This helps students network with potential colleagues and develop the technology-enabled collaboration skills they’ll need in today’s increasingly distributed workplaces. NECB’s Prior Learning Assessment program considers your work experience and job skills, open source courseware study, volunteer work, job skills and other background (including military experience) in granting you academic credit toward your degree. Looking for professional development or a new skill set in business or finance? You can easily enroll in a course or two without pursuing a degree. Net Price: $9,563/yr Score: 60.13 Grantham University Online Fast Degrees Grantham’s cheap, fast online degrees allow students to earn an associate’s or bachelor’s degree in a fraction of the time. 7. GRANTHAM UNIVERSITY Website Grantham’s accelerated online degree programs allow you to complete your associate’s degree in under two years or your bachelor’s degree in under four years. Bachelor’s degrees focus on in-demand fields like accounting, financial planning, and computer science. For nurses there’s even a RN-to-BSN completion program, making this one of the best fast online degree options in nursing. Grantham recognizes that flexibility is particularly important to first responders – established firefighters, police officers, and EMS professionals – and offers degrees and some scholarship assistance tailored to these groups. There are also scholarships and textbook/software grants for military members and a special partnership with the Community College of the Air Force to help Air Force members complete their bachelor’s degrees through an accelerated program. Net Price: $12,808/yr Score: 62.50 Western Governors University Fast Online Degrees WGU’s customized academic planning make it a source for some of the best fast online degrees. 6. WESTERN GOVERNORS UNIVERSITY Website This nonprofit university grants bachelor’s and master’s degrees in teaching, IT, business, and nursing. The Teacher’s College in particular has many subject–specific licensure programs, helping students prepare efficiently for their careers. Because tuition is charged according to the length of time you are enrolled, not the number of courses you take, you are rewarded financially for progressing quickly – a dream scenario for fast-paced students! You can also get personalized Degree Plans that take into account your prior skills and knowledge, performance on pre-enrollment assessments, and remaining requirements, so you only take exactly the courses you need. And because WGU requires “On Time Progress,” you’ll have plenty of support to make sure you don’t languish in your academic efforts. Plus, students who have completed either an associate’s degree or coursework at a community college can transfer credits, expediting their progress and making WGU a standout in this ranking of fast online degrees. Net Price: $8,624/yr Score: 62.82 National Paralegal College Fast Online Degree NPC’s legal studies program is a no brainer for students who want a fast online degree studying law and government. 5. NATIONAL PARALEGAL COLLEGE Website Through this school’s accelerated online degree programs, you can earn your bachelor’s in legal studies in under 3 years or an associate’s degree in just 15 months. Lots of interesting classes run simultaneously, some of which you’d expect in a legal curriculum (American Government; Torts and Personal Injury; Constitutional Law and Criminal Procedure) but others will broaden your education, including The Science of Nutrition, Environmental Science, and Laws of Cyberspace. Depending on your schedule, you can join live online lectures or watch recordings whenever you have time. Unsure if this school is right for you? Simply by filling out an application, you’ll get two free weeks of enrollment, including lectures and discussions with your potential instructors and classmates. This free trial period could be just what you need to decide to complete an affordable, fast online degree at NPC. Net Price: $13,709/yr Score: 69.33 American Public University System Online Fast Degrees Students who are eager to earn an affordable fast online degree can enroll at APU as early as next month. 4. AMERICAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY SYSTEM Website APUS has been serving non-traditional students since 1991, well before online education became mainstream. Originally founded as American Military University to cater to mobile military learners, it reorganized into APUS in 2002 in order to serve a wider range of learners – and today 42% of its students are civilians. Even so, American Public University continues to enroll more members of the armed forces than any other school. Although it offers nearly 200 degrees and certificates, the school’s most popular programs include business administration, criminal justice, general studies, sports and health sciences, psychology, and homeland security. With courses starting on the first Monday of every month and lasting either 8 or 16 weeks, there’s no need to wait for a new semester to begin, earning APUS a top spot in our fast online degree rankings. Net Price: $9,572/yr Score: 70.60 American InterContinental University Fast Online Degrees Accredited, fast online degrees are in abundance at AIU, which offers programs in everything from business to web design. 3. AMERICAN INTERCONTINENTAL UNIVERSITY-ONLINE Website In addition to the career-focused fields found at other online schools – business, criminal justice, IT, education, and healthcare – AIU also has several degrees in design fields, making it a great choice for students who want to blend vocational skills and artistic vision. You can earn a Bachelor of Fine Arts in graphic design, web design, illustration, or even fashion. For students who live in the greater Atlanta or Houston areas and want face-to-face learning and physical classrooms, there are campuses waiting to welcome you. A generous credit-transfer program allows you to save time and money, making this a truly affordable fast online degree. AIU also has a special admissions department just for the military and offers a 45% tuition discount to active service members, as well as a 10% discount for Reserves, National Guard, and their spouses. Net Price: $15,495/yr Score: 71.82 Sessions-College-for-Professional-Design(1) 2. SESSIONS COLLEGE FOR PROFESSIONAL DESIGN Website Speaking of artistic degrees for vocational trades, Sessions is a great choice for students who want an accredited fast online degree in the arts, such as graphic design, web design, digital photography, and much more. Experienced designers can also take quick professional development courses in Photoshop and other specific skills without pursuing an entire degree. This makes Sessions a standout among the many online colleges that offer more traditional programs in professional fields like business, teaching, or information technology. While Sessions offers numerous certificates and associates degrees, students can also earn credits that transfer to bachelor’s degrees at Excelsior College. All courses have three different start dates a year – January, May and September – giving you plenty of flexibility when planning your schedule. Net Price: $12,352/yr Score: 74.74 American Broadcasting School Fast Online Degrees The American Broadcasting School is #1 on this fast online degree ranking and undoubtedly the best option for aspiring journalists. 1. AMERICAN BROADCASTING SCHOOL Website Granting an inexpensive, fast online degree in radio broadcasting, this school offers a fast track to careers in news, sports, talk, or music radio, as well as other creative voice opportunities. The entire program takes just over eight months to complete (71% of students graduate), uses exclusively one-on-one instruction, and allows you to work at your own pace. You’ll get all the software and equipment you need (as long as you provide your own computer) and personalized vocal coaching. Starting in your very first week, you’ll have the opportunity to record your own radio shows and receive live critiques from professional instructors. Because success in broadcasting requires more than just talent, you’ll also learn digital production, marketing, and other tools of the broadcasting trade. Looking to enroll quickly? You can begin on any Monday of the year! Net Price: $9,459/yr Score: 82.13 See our methodology page for more information about how we calculated this ranking.* *For this ranking, we added an extra feature to the standard methodology. Because we wanted to focus specifically on “speed” rather than general measures of quality, we custom-designed a scale to rank schools based on this highly desirable “fast factor.” Specifically, we researched each online college and asked ourselves the following questions: Does the school offer bachelor’s degrees that one could complete in less than four years? What about associate’s degrees in less than two years? Are there many short certificate options for students who want to quickly augment their skills in an established field? Are there “accelerated” degree paths and options for students who want to earn a combined bachelor’s/master’s degree? Does the school offer credit for life/work experience and past academic coursework in order to help students move ahead on their degree path? Does the school offer multiple course formats so that students have the option to start several times a year and/or to choose between classes of varying lengths? But don’t worry – we still considered graduation rate and tuition costs as well! We hope this has been helpful in providing information about fast online degrees from accredited colleges. There are many fast online degree programs available, and we encourage you to do a broad search to find the program that’s best for you. THIS CONCLUDES OUR RANKING OF THE BEST VALUES IN FAST ONLINE DEGREES. Sources: College Navigator By CVO Staff Published March 2016

Sistem Imunitas Tubuh Manusia Selamat datang di Lahiya situs (blog) sederhana yang berbagi ilmu dan pengetahuan dengan penuh keikhlasan. Dan, pada kesempatan kali ini, kami bakal sharing pengetahuan mengenai Sistem Imunitas Tubuh Manusia, yang terdiri dari Mekanisme Pertahanan Tubuh, Antigen dan Antibodi, dan Respon Kekebalan.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [] Article Source: Article Source:

Mekanisme Pertahanan Tubuh

Tubuh memiliki dua susunan kekebalan, yakni kekebalan nonspesifik serta kekebalan spesifik. Bakteri, virus, serta zat asing mesti melalu system kekebalan nonspesifik terlebih dulu. Bila kekebalan nonspesifik tidak dapat menghancurkannya, selanjutnya zat penginfeksi itu bakal menghadapi system kekebalan spesifik.

Kekebalan Nonspesifik (Bawaan)

System kekebalan bawaan dipunyai oleh seseorang mulai sejak lahir. Kekebalan bawaan bersifat nonspesifik, artinya system kekebalan ini senantiasa bersiap untuk menghadapi infeksi apa pun yang masuk kedalam tubuh. Mekanisme kekebalan ini efisien pada mikroorganisme tanpa terjadinya pengalaman kontak sebelumnya dengan organisme itu.

Kekebalan nonspesifik ada yang bersifat eksternal, ada juga yang bersifat internal. Kekebalan eksternal disebut juga dengan sebagai perlindungan permukaan, lantaran melindungi dibagian luar tubuh. Kekebalan internal lebih bersifat perlindungan seluler serta kimiawi.

Kekebalan Eksternal

Kekebalan eksternal terdiri dari jaringan epitelium yang melindungi tubuh kita (kulit serta jaringan mukus) bersama sekresi yang dihasilkannya. Tidak hanya sebagai penghambat masuknya penyakit, epitelium itu menghasilkan beberapa zat pelindung. Contohnya, hasil sekresi kulit bersifat asam hingga beracun untuk bakeri. Air ludah (saliva) serta air mata dapat juga membunuh bakteri. Mukus (lendir) menjebak mikroorganisme hingga tidak bisa masuk kedalam saluran pencernaan serta pernafasan.

Kekebalan Internal

Kekebalan internal bakal melawan bakteri, virus, atau beberapa zat asing yang dapat melalui kekebalan eksternal. Kekebalan internal berbentuk rangsangan kimia serta melibatkan beberapa sel fagositik, sel natural killer, protein anti mikroba yang melawan zat asing yang sudah masuk dalam tubuh, dan peradangan (inflamasi) serta demam.

Beberapa sel fagositik yang bertindak dalam kekebalan internal diantaranya neutrofil, makrofag, serta eosinofil. Neutrofil bakal bersifat fagositik (mengonsumsi) bila berjumpa dengan materi penginfeksi didalam jaringan. Makrofag bakal berlekatan dengan polisakarida di permukaan tubuh mikroba serta lantas menelan mikroba itu. Eosinofil bertugas untuk menyerang parasit yang memiliki ukuran besar, contohnya cacing.

Sel alami killer menyerang sel parasit lewat cara mengeluarkan senyawa penghancur yang disebut dengan perforin. Sel natural killer bisa melisiskan serta membunuh sel kanker dan virus saat sebelum system kekebalan adaptif diaktifkan. Protein antimikroba meningkatkan pertahanan tubuh lewat cara menyerang mikroorganisme secara langsung ataupun lewat cara menghambat reproduksi mikroorgnisme. Satu diantara protein antimikroba yang penting untuk melindungi sel dari serangan virus yaitu interferon.

Kekebalan internal yang lain yaitu tanggapan peradangan (inflamasi) serta demam. Peradangan dipicu oleh trauma fisik, panas yang berlebihan, infeksi bakteri, dan sebagainya. Peradangan berbentuk lokal atau cuma muncul pada daerah terinfeksi sedangkan demam menyebar ke semua tubuh.

Kekebalan Spesifik (Adaptif)

Bila bakteri, virus, ataupun zat asing sukses melalui system kekebalan bawaan (nonspesifik), berikutnya beberapa zat asing itu bakal dihadapi oleh system kekebalan adaptif. Kekebalan adaptif bersifat spesifik, artinya mekanisme pertahanannya tergantung pada pembentukan tanggapan imun pada mikroorganisme spesifik yang memberi rangsangan.

Kekebalan adaptif bisa bersifat alamiah ataupun buatan. Kekebalan adaptif alami pasif diperoleh oleh bayi dari ibunya dalam kandungan, sedangkan kekebalan adaptif aktif diperoleh contohnya lewat infeksi (menderita penyakit terlebih dulu). Kekebalan adaptif buatan pasif berbentuk transfer antibodi dari orang lain, sedangkan kekebalan adaptif buatan aktif didapat lewat imunisasi.

Bersumber pada sel yang ikut serta dalam mekanismenya, kekebalan adaptif dibagi jadi dua, yakni kekebalan humoral serta kekebalan yang diperantarai sel (cell-mediated immunity).

Kekebalan Humoral

Unsur yang paling berperan dalam kekebalan humoral yaitu antibodi yang dihasilkan oleh beberapa sel B limfosit. Antibodi diketemukan dalam humor (cairan) tubuh, contohnya darah serta cairan limfa serta berfungsi mengikat bakteri dan toksin bakteri, dan menandai virus untuk dihancurkan selanjutnya oleh sel darah putih.

Kekebalan yang Diperantarai Sel

Faktor paling penting dalam kekebalan ini yaitu beberapa sel hidup, yakni beberapa sel T limfosit. Beberapa sel ini secara aktif melawan bakteri serta virus yang ada di didalam sel tubuh yang terinfeksi. Beberapa sel ini juga dapat melawan protozoa, jamur, serta cacing parasit.


Antigen yaitu sebuah substansi kimia yang dapat merangsang system imun (kekebalan) untuk menyebabkan tanggapan spesifik. Contoh antigen yaitu sisi luar kapsul atau dinding sel bakteri. Antigen disebut juga dengan imunogen.


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