Sistem Pemerintahan Kerajaan Hindu-Buddha dan Islam

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Net Price: $9,459/yr Score: 82.13 See our methodology page for more information about how we calculated this ranking.* *For this ranking, we added an extra feature to the standard methodology. Because we wanted to focus specifically on “speed” rather than general measures of quality, we custom-designed a scale to rank schools based on this highly desirable “fast factor.” Specifically, we researched each online college and asked ourselves the following questions: Does the school offer bachelor’s degrees that one could complete in less than four years? What about associate’s degrees in less than two years? Are there many short certificate options for students who want to quickly augment their skills in an established field? Are there “accelerated” degree paths and options for students who want to earn a combined bachelor’s/master’s degree? Does the school offer credit for life/work experience and past academic coursework in order to help students move ahead on their degree path? Does the school offer multiple course formats so that students have the option to start several times a year and/or to choose between classes of varying lengths? But don’t worry – we still considered graduation rate and tuition costs as well! We hope this has been helpful in providing information about fast online degrees from accredited colleges. There are many fast online degree programs available, and we encourage you to do a broad search to find the program that’s best for you. THIS CONCLUDES OUR RANKING OF THE BEST VALUES IN FAST ONLINE DEGREES. Sources: College Navigator By CVO Staff Published March 2016

Sistem Pemerintahan Kerajaan Hindu-Buddha dan Islam Baiklah sahabat, di kesempatan ini kita bakal mengulas tentang System Pemerintahan Kerajaan Hindu-Buddha dan Islam. Langsung saja kita masuk ke pembahasannya, ya.

Sebelum masuknya pengaruh Hindu-Buddha ke indonesia, system pemerintahan yang di anut di indonesia yaitu system pemerintahan desa, yang dipimpin oleh seorang kepala suku dan dipilh berdasarkan kelebihan serta kekuatannya.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [] Article Source: Article Source:

Dengan masuknya pengaruh Hindu muncul konsep dewa raja, pimpinan paling tinggi dalam satu kelompok yaitu seorang raja, yang dipercaya sebagai titisan atau reinkarnasi dewa (Dewa Siwa atau Dewa Wisnu). Konsep ini melegitimasi (mengesahkan) pemusatan kekuasaan pada raja.

Dari konsep ini pulalah indonesia mulai menenal system pemerintahan kerajaan, dengan raja sebagai pimpinan paling tinggi dibantu beberapa petinggi yang bertugas sesuai sama fungsinya (misalnya: masalah ketatanegaraan, agama, hukum, perpajakan, upeti, dan sebagainya).

Sebagai penguasa, raja mempunyai wewenang penuh terhadap seluruh tanah di wilayah kerajaannya, sedangkan rakyat hanya penggarap. Rakyat juga harus memberikan kesetiaan yang penuh pada titah raja, termasuk juga dalam membangun istana serta candi tanpa menuntut gaji.

System pemerintahan kerajaan pada masa-masa kerajaan Hindu serta Buddha biasanya terbagi dalam beberapa bagian, yakni bagian pertahanan atau angkatan perang, perdagangan, keuangan, masalah luar negri, pajak, serta hukum. Jabatan-jabatan ini bisa dirangkap hanya oleh beberapa orang tergantung keinginan raja dan luasnya kerajaan. Raja yaitu pimpinan paling tinggi.

Terdapat ketidaksamaan system pemerintahan pada kerjaan Hindu-Buddha yang berada di Jawa Timur, Jawa Tengan bagian utara, dan Jawa Tengah bagian selatan. Hal semacam ini bisa di identifikasi dengan melihat denah bangunan candi didalam satu kompleks.

Pemerintahan kerajaan Hindu-Buddha di Jawa Tengah bagian selatan bersifat Feodal. Hal semacam ini tampak dari denah bangunan candi. Candi induk di letakkan di bagian tengah serta dikelilingi candi-candi perwara. Hal semacam ini menandakan pusat pemerintahan seutuhnya ada di tangan raja. Lalu itu, bangunan candi-candi di Jawa Tengah bagian utara mencerminkan system pemerintahan Federal, di mana pemerintah pusat memerintah kerajaan-kerajaan kecil yang sederajat secara demokratis. Hal semacam ini tercermin dari beberapa lokasi dalam denah bangunan candi yang menebar dalam kompleks percandian. System federal juga tampak pada kerajaan Hindu-Buddha di Jawa Timur, di mana negara-negara bagian yang ada di wilayah kekuasaannya mempunyai otoritas penuh. Hal semacam ini ditunjukan oleh denah bangunan candi, candi yang besar yang melambangkan pemerintah pusat di bangun di bagian belakang candi-candi yang lain.

Sistem Pemerintahan Kerajaan Hindu – Budha

Adanya system pemerintahan pada masyarakat sudah di kenal sejak jaman pra sejarah. System itu merujuk pada hubungan antara penguasa dengan rakyat. Penguasa yang dijelaskan disini adalah seseorang yang disegani serta dihormati oleh lantaran kelebihannya dari masyarakat yang lain, baik itu berupa kesaktian, pengetahuan, dan sebagainya. Biasanya penguasa atau pemimpin yang kurang lebih setingkat desa di jaman pra-sejarah di pilih oleh masyarakatnya sendiri. Susunan ini adalah susunan pemerintahan sederhana yang ada di jaman pra-sejarah sebelum masuknya pengaruh Hindu, Budha, ataupun Islam.

Walau demikian, bersamaan dengan masuknya paham agama Hindu ke Indonesia, berganti pulalah system pemerintahan didalam kehidupan bermasyarakat. Masyarakat Indonesia sudah mengetahui system dewa dan raja. Dimana raja adalah seseorang yang dianggap sebagai titisan dari dewa yang diakui oleh umat Hindu serta Budha.

Konsep ini sudah merubah system kepemimpinan yang dulunya cuma setara dengan desa, sudah berubah jadi system yang di pimpin oleh seorang raja (setingkat presiden) atau tergantung kekuasaan kerajaan itu. Sang raja dibantu oleh beberapa orang petinggi yang dipilih oleh raja itu. Pejabat-pejabat itu bisa bekerja sesuai dengan bagian yang diperintahkan oleh raja, seperti bagian upeti, bagian kerakyatan, bagian keagamaan, bagian hukum, bagian perpajakan, dan sebagainya).

Raja mempunyai hak serta kewenangan penuh atas tanah kekuasaannya. Begitu pula dengan rakyat, mesti mematuhi semua perintah serta perkataan atau titah dari raja.

Terdapat ketidaksamaan system pada system pemerintahan yang ada di berbagai kerajaan yang menganut agama Hindu atau Buddha di Indonesia. Hal semacam ini tercermin dari penemuan-penemuan candi. System pemerintahan di kerajaan yang berdomisili di Jawa Tengah lebih berbentuk Feodal, disebabkan karena bangunan candi utama atau candi induk berada di tengah-tengah serta dikelilingi oleh candi candi kecil. Ini memperlihatkan bahwa kekuasaan yaitu mutlak punya seorang raja.


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