Teori Pembentukan Lempeng Bumi

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Teori Pembentukan Lempeng Bumi Baiklah sahabat, di kesempatan ini kita bakal mengulas tentang Teori Pembentukan Lempeng Bumi, tidak butuh berlama-lama langsung saja kita masuk ke pembahasan artikelnya, ya.

Struktur Lapisan Bumi

Atmosfer

Atmosfer adalah kumpulan gas serta udara yang berbentuk lapisan tipis melingkupi atau menyelubungi permukaan bumi. Diibaratkan dengan sebuah jeruk, bumi yaitu isinya sedangkan kulit jeruk yaitu atmosfer. 99 persen kandungan atmosfer berada pada 30 km lapisan terbawahnya. Pada atmosfer terjadi proses cuaca serta iklim.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare type of mesothelioma which attacks the lining of abdomen also known as peritoneum. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a universally fatal disease affecting 20% to 30% of the mesothelioma cases. It's was first described by Miller and Wynn in the year 1908. According to the statistics, in the past two decades, the incidence of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has increased. Peritoneal mesothelioma affects the lining of the abdomen also known as peritoneum. The location of malignant cell is human's abdominal lining and because of that, MPM can sometimes known as abdominal mesothelioma. However, most common term used to describe this type of cancer is peritoneal mesothelioma. The main cause of MPM in humans is asbestos. Asbestos typically is the one of most commonly roofing materials since it is not only cheaper but is easy to fix on a roof. Asbestos exposure contributed to almost 70 to 80 percent of mesothelioma lung cancer. Humans come into contact with asbestos when they swallow or inhale the fibers. Asbestos inhalation may increase risk to develop asbestos related diseases, most importantly mesothelioma. Asbestos was completely banned in UK since it was recognized to be a serious health hazard, and it is now responsible for about 4000 deaths each year and many cases of serious disease. The people at increase risk of developing health asbestos related disease are those whose work brings them into direct contact with asbestos such as builders, heating engineers, roofers and demolition workers. In addition to mesothelioma, asbestos exposure will increase the risk of other health problems such as lung cancer, asbestosis (chronic lung ailment) and other type of cancer such as larynx and kidney cancer. Symptoms of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma It can takes such a long time for cancer to develop the symptoms and sometimes may take up to 30 years, between exposure to asbestos and the start of the disease. Most common symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, abnormal weight loss, anemia, easy fatigue, nausea and vomiting. Abdominal pain and swelling result from fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. Other than that, people can easily get fever when the disease starts to shows its symptoms. Among the symptoms stated above, abdominal pain is the most common reported initial symptoms of MPM. Unexplained night sweats and blood coagulation problems are less frequent symptoms occurring when the cancer develops. If the cancer cells spread to the other part of the body, the symptoms may lead to trouble swallowing or swelling of the neck and face. Diagnosis of Abdominal Mesothelioma It is very difficult to diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma since there is no defined system so far that can differentiate the stages of the development of cancerous tumor cells. If required, TNM staging system normally used to detect the cancer in stages. Other than that, Serum mesothelin-related protein (SMRP) may be a potentially useful serum marker used to diagnose and to follow-up the cancer progression. Computer tomography (CT) findings may be a useful tool in detection and characterization of peritoneal mass. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a deadly neoplasm. MPM's diagnosis is difficult to perform since the symptoms will take a long time to show up. Early detection is the key in peritoneal mesothelioma treatment since the cancer cell normally spread very fast. Peritoneal Mesothelioma can be regarded as a very dangerous cancer among other cancer.However we can prevent this problems from occur to you and your family. As i said before, early detection is the key of peritoneal mesothelioma treatment [http://peritonealmesotheliomatreatment.com/] success since the cancer cell spread very fast. Get your free update's information about mesothelioma especially mesothelioma treatment by click > mesothelioma [http://mesotheliomatreatmentnews.com/] Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Lan_Sipenyair/912820 Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/6234654

Litosfer

Litosfer yaitu lapisan bumi di bawah atmosfer. Lithos artinya batu serta sfhere (sphaira) artinya bulatan (lapisan). Sehingga lotosfer disimpulkan sebagai lapisan bumi yang berbentuk keras, kaku serta rigid dengan ketebalan kurang lebih 0-70 km. Litosfer terdiri atas dua lempeng yakni:

  • Lempeng Benua (0-10 km) dengan mengandung lapisan sima.
  • Lempeng Samudra (0-70 km) dengan lapisan sial.

Berikut ini tabel unsur penyusun litosfer:

Astenosfer

Lapisan initerletak dibawah litosfer dengan ketebalan 70-2. 900 km berbentuk material padat yang bersifat seperti fluida. Atau dengan kata lain lapisan ini labil sehingga, ketika dipengaruhi arus konveksi, ia akan bergerak serta menggerakkan lapisan di atasnya seperti peristiwa gempa bumi. Suhunya dapat meraih kurang lebih 3000 oC. Komposisi Mantel terdiri dari bagian atas (upper mantle), astenosfer (bagian dari mantel), serta mantel bagian bawah. Bisa dikatakan bahwa astenosfer bagian dari mantel.

Barisfer

Barisfer yaitu lapisan inti bumi. Yang tersusun atas lapisan nikel serta besi. Lapisan ini dibedakan atas 2 yakni:

  • Outer Core adalah inti bumi baian luar dengan ketebalan 2900-4980 km. Tersusun dari unsur besi serta nikel yang berbentuk cair dengan suhu 3900 oC.
  • Inner Core adalah inti bumi bagian dalam dengan ketebalan 4980-6370 km. Tersusun dari unsur nikel yang berbentuk padat walaupun dengan suhu 4800 oC akibat tekanan yang besar sehingga menghimpit serta melindungi intinya untuk tetap berada di tengah.

Teori Pembentukan Lempeng Bumi

Contraction and Expansion (kontraksi dan pemuaian)

Penyusutan Bumi terjadi lantaran adanya proses pendinginan. Analogi ini diadopsi dari peristiwa mengkerutnya kulit apel yang mengering. Teori ini bisa menjelaskan daerah-daerah yang tertekan seperti jejeran gunung api tetapi tidak tepat menjelaskan cekungan, celah dan lembah. Teori ini pertama kali dikemukakan oleh Descretes (1596-1650) serta di sukung oleh James Dana dan Elie de Baumant.

Pengembangan Bumi terjadi lantaran proses pemanasan. Teori ini didapat setelah radioaktivitas di ketahui. Ia bisa menjelaskan bagaimana Benua dapat hancur serta dengan mudahnya menjelaskan pembentukan lipatan namun belum dapat menjelaskan daerah-daerah tekanan.

Continental Drift (pengapungan benua)

Pada awal abad ke-20 ilmuan mengerti bahwa mereka tidak dapat menjelaskan struktur Bumi serta prosesnya dengan satu teori saja. Banyak hipotesis ilmuan yang dikembangkan untuk mencoba serta menunjang konflik observasi. Alfred Wegner seorang meteorologis Jerman yang mempelajari tentang iklim kuno menyampaikan teori pergeseran benua. Hipotesisnya yaitu Continental Drift yang dikemukakan pada tahun 1910. Seperti kebanyakan orang, amerika selatan serta afrika cocok bersama-sama seperti jigsaw puzzle serta menarik perhatiannya.

Dia memadukan sebagian fakta serta distribusi fosil untuk memformulasikan teori bahwa benua bergerak dipermukaan bumi. Dia menyampaikan bahwa sebelum 200 juta tahun yang lalu, semua benua membentuk satu daratan yang besar serta berat yang disebuat Pangea. Prinsip dari teori ini yaitu benua diposisikan pada suatu lempeng atau batuan, serta mereka mengapung sepanjang permukaan bumi tiap waktu. Kelemahan teori Wegner dan alasannya tidak di terima oleh gelogist yaitu dia menyampaikan bahwa benua menggelincir di atas dasar laut, padahal dasar laut tidak cukup kuat untuk menopang benua.

Laurasia-Gondwana

Alexander Du Toit adalah geologist Afrika Selatan. Setelah kunjungannya ke Amerika Selatan, ia menjadi pendukung teori Wegener. Dia mempubllikasikan observasinya dalam A Geological Comparison of South America with South Africa dan kemudian dia mengembangkan pemikirannya dalam Our Wondering Contonents (1937). Dia menyatakan pemisahan tersebut membentuk dua benua super yakni Laurasia (di sekitar kutub utara) dan Gondwana (di sekitar kutub selatan).

Paleomagnetism (pola magnetik purba batuan)

Selama perang dunia kedua, geologis yang dipekerjakan oleh militer bernama Harry Hass dari Universitas Princeton menyampaikan riset mengenai dasar laut. Tujuan riset ini untuk memahami topografi dasar laut termasuk mengukur kedalaman dasar laut dari permukaan serta menemukan tempat tersembunyi musuh-musuh di kapal selam. Type penelitian lainnya menggunakan magnetometer (untuk mengukur benda-benda magnet) yang ditempatkan dibelakang kapal untuk mendeteksi kapal selam. Riset ini juga memperlihatkan adanya anomali magnetic di bawah laut, dengan kemagnetan yang tinggi di punggung laut serta kemagnetan yang rendah di sisi lainnya.

Riset ini menyatakan 2 topografi perlu yakni punggung samudra serta palung samudra. Harry juga menyatakan bahwa benua tidak bergerak sepanjang kerak samudra, tetapi benua dan kerak samudra bergerak bersama-sama. Bila kerak samudra yang baru dan litosfer terus menerus terbentuk pada punggung laut, samudra dapat bertambah luas, terkecuali bila ada sebuah mekanisme yang menghancurkan litosfer samudra. Zona Benioff serta palung samudra membuktikan kalau litosfer samudra kembali pada mantel dengan menyusup ke bawah pada palung laut (zona subduksi). Lantaran lempeng samudra dingin serta rapuh, ia bakal pecah dan kembali bercampur dengan matel serta menghasilkan gempa bumi yang amat dalam.

Pada tahun 1950 dan 1960, penelitian mengenai medan magnet bumi dan perubahannya seiring berjalannya waktu (paleomagnetism) membuktikan fakta terbaru bahwa benua mengapung. Kesimpulan dari konsep medan magnet yaitu (1) Bumi mempunyai lebih dari satu kutub yang berubah seiring berjalannya waktu di masa-masa lalu. (2) benua yang berbeda sudah bergerak relatif satu sama lain seiring berjalannya waktu geologi. Riset ini mengkonfirmasi hipotesis terakhir dan juga menkonfirmasi teori Continental Drift.

Convection Current (arus konveksi)

Perpecahan benua dan pergerakan lempeng dikarenakan oleh adanya daya yang menggerakkannya. Daya itu datang dari arus konveksi didalam astenosfer bumi. Arus konveksi yaitu perpindahan daya panas pada fluida, yang dikarenakan oleh:

  • Peluruhan unsur radioaktif
  • Gradien Geometris
  • Karena adanya serangan benda asing
  • Panas yang tersimpan pada saat pembentukan planet

Sea Floor Spreading

Pergerakan lempeng yang saling menjauh tertangkap oleh peneliti. Pergerakan ini menyebabkan terbentuknya punggungan yang memanjang di daerah yang menjauh. Vine, Matthews serta Morely mengumpulkan informasi-informasi penting serta menemukan kalau lenmpeng samudra yang baru terbentuk di antara dua lempeng yang saling menjauh. Penyusupan magma antar lempeng ini mengakibatkan adanya punggung laut. Teori ini diberi nama Sea Floor Spreading serta menjawab pertanyaan terbesar mengenai Continental Drift “ Bagaimana dapat benua bergerak di atas kerak samudra? ” faktanya, benua bergerak bersama kerak samudra sebagai bagian dari system litosfer. Fenomena ini dikarenakan konveksi arus panas dari mantel atas bumi atau astenosfer.

Tektonik Lempeng

Dengan menggabungkan Sea Floor Spreading dengan Continental Drift dan informasi seismik global, teori terbaru dari Tektonik lempeng yang dicetuskan oleh Mc. Kenzie serta Robert Parker menjadi teori yang paling masuk akal untuk menjelaskan pergerakan lempeng.

Teori tektonik lempeng berdasarkan jenis sederhana Bumi. Litosfer yang padat tersusun atas kerak samudra serta kerak benua serta terletak diatas mantel, serta terdiri dari beberapa lembar dengan ukuran yang berbeda yang disebut dengan lempeng.

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