Teori Pembentukan Lempeng Bumi

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Teori Pembentukan Lempeng Bumi Baiklah sahabat, di kesempatan ini kita bakal mengulas tentang Teori Pembentukan Lempeng. Bumi, tidak butuh berlama-lama langsung saja kita masuk ke pembahasan artikelnya, ya.

Struktur Lapisan Bumi

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a. Atmosfer

Atmosfer adalah kumpulan gas serta udara yang berbentuk lapisan tipis melingkupi atau menyelubungi permukaan bumi. Diibaratkan dengan sebuah jeruk, bumi yaitu isinya sedangkan kulit jeruk yaitu atmosfer. 99 persen kandungan atmosfer berada pada 30 km lapisan terbawahnya. Pada atmosfer terjadi proses cuaca serta iklim.

b. Litosfer

Litosfer yaitu lapisan bumi di bawah atmosfer. Lithos artinya batu serta sfhere (sphaira) artinya bulatan (lapisan). Sehingga lotosfer disimpulkan sebagai lapisan bumi yang berbentuk keras, kaku serta rigid dengan ketebalan kurang lebih 0-70 km. Litosfer terdiri atas dua lempeng yakni:

  • Lempeng Benua (0-10 km) dengan mengandung lapisan sima.
  • Lempeng Samudra (0-70 km) dengan lapisan sial.

Berikut ini tabel unsur penyusun litosfer :

c. Astenosfer

Lapisan initerletak dibawah litosfer dengan ketebalan 70-2. 900 km berbentuk material padat yang bersifat seperti fluida. Atau dengan kata lain lapisan ini labil sehingga, ketika dipengaruhi arus konveksi, ia akan bergerak serta menggerakkan lapisan di atasnya seperti peristiwa gempa bumi. Suhunya dapat meraih kurang lebih 3000 oC.

Komposisi Mantel terdiri dari bagian atas (upper mantle), astenosfer (bagian dari mantel), serta mantel bagian bawah. Bisa dikatakan bahwa astenosfer bagian dari mantel.

d. Barisfer

Barisfer yaitu lapisan inti bumi. Yang tersusun atas lapisan nikel serta besi. Lapisan ini dibedakan atas 2 yakni:

  1. Outer Core adalah inti bumi baian luar dengan ketebalan 2900-4980 km. Tersusun dari unsur besi serta nikel yang berbentuk cair dengan suhu 3900 oC.
  2. Inner Core adalah inti bumi bagian dalam dengan ketebalan 4980-6370 km. Tersusun dari unsur nikel yang berbentuk padat walaupun dengan suhu 4800 oC akibat tekanan yang besar sehingga menghimpit serta melindungi intinya untuk tetap berada di tengah.

Teori Pembentukan Lempeng Bumi

Contraction and Expansion (kontraksi dan pemuaian)

Penyusutan Bumi terjadi lantaran adanya proses pendinginan. Analogi ini diadopsi dari peristiwa mengkerutnya kulit apel yang mengering. Teori ini bisa menjelaskan daerah-daerah yang tertekan seperti jejeran gunung api tetapi tidak tepat menjelaskan cekungan, celah dan lembah. Teori ini pertama kali dikemukakan oleh Descretes (1596-1650) serta di sukung oleh James Dana dan Elie de Baumant.

Pengembangan Bumi terjadi lantaran proses pemanasan. Teori ini didapat setelah radioaktivitas di ketahui. Ia bisa menjelaskan bagaimana Benua dapat hancur serta dengan mudahnya menjelaskan pembentukan lipatan namun belum dapat menjelaskan daerah-daerah tekanan.

Continental Drift (pengapungan benua)

Pada awal abad ke-20 ilmuan mengerti bahwa mereka tidak dapat menjelaskan struktur Bumi serta prosesnya dengan satu teori saja. Banyak hipotesis ilmuan yang dikembangkan untuk mencoba serta menunjang konflik observasi. Alfred Wegner seorang meteorologis Jerman yang mempelajari tentang iklim kuno menyampaikan teori pergeseran benua.

Hipotesisnya yaitu Continental Drift yang dikemukakan pada tahun 1910. Seperti kebanyakan orang, amerikaselatan serta afrika cocok bersama-sama seperti jigsaw puzzle serta menarik perhatiannya. Dia memadukan sebagian fakta serta distribusi fosil untuk memformulasikan teori bahwa benua bergerak dipermukaan bumi. Dia menyampaikan bahwa sebelum 200 juta tahun yang lalu, semua benua membentuk satu daratan yang besar serta berat yang disebuat Pangea.

Prinsip dari teori ini yaitu benua diposisikan pada suatu lempeng atau batuan, serta mereka mengapung sepanjang permukaan bumi tiap waktu. Kelemahan teori Wegner dan alasannya tidak di terima oleh gelogist yaitu dia menyampaikan bahwa benua menggelincir di atas dasar laut, padahal dasar laut tidak cukup kuat untuk menopang benua.


Alexander Du Toit adalah geologist Afrika Selatan. Setelah kunjungannya ke Amerika Selatan, ia menjadi pendukung teori Wegener. Dia mempubllikasikan observasinya dalam A Geological Comparison of South America with South Africa dan kemudian dia mengembangkan pemikirannya dalam Our Wondering Contonents (1937). Dia menyatakan pemisahan tersebut membentuk dua benua super yakni Laurasia (di sekitar kutub utara) dan Gondwana (di sekitar kutub selatan).

Paleomagnetism (pola magnetik purba batuan)

Selama perang dunia kedua, geologis yang dipekerjakan oleh militer bernama Harry Hass dari Universitas Princeton menyampaikan riset mengenai dasar laut. Tujuan riset ini untuk memahami topografi dasar laut termasuk mengukur kedalaman dasar laut dari permukaan serta menemukan tempat tersembunyi musuh-musuh di kapal selam. Type penelitian lainnya menggunakan magnetometer (untuk mengukur benda-benda magnet) yang ditempatkan dibelakang kapal untuk mendeteksi kapal selam. Riset ini juga memperlihatkan adanya anomali magnetic di bawah laut, dengan kemagnetan yang tinggi di punggung laut serta kemagnetan yang rendah di sisi lainnya.

Riset ini menyatakan 2 topografi perlu yakni punggung samudra serta palung samudra. Harry juga menyatakan bahwa benua tidak bergerak sepanjang kerak samudra, tetapi benua dan kerak samudra bergerak bersama-sama. Bila kerak samudra yang baru dan litosfer terus menerus terbentuk pada punggung laut, samudra dapat bertambah luas, terkecuali bila ada sebuah mekanisme yang menghancurkan litosfer samudra. Zona Benioff serta palung samudra membuktikan kalau litosfer samudra kembali pada mantel dengan menyusup ke bawah pada palung laut (zona subduksi). Lantaran lempeng samudra dingin serta rapuh, ia bakal pecah dan kembali bercampur dengan matel serta menghasilkan gempa bumi yang amat dalam.

Pada tahun 1950 dan 1960, penelitian mengenai medan magnet bumi dan perubahannya seiring berjalannya waktu (paleomagnetism) membuktikan fakta terbaru bahwa benua mengapung.

Kesimpulan dari konsep medan magnet yaitu :

  1. Bumi mempunyai lebih dari satu kutub yang berubah seiring berjalannya waktu di masa-masa lalu.
  2. benua yang berbeda sudah bergerak relatif satu sama lain seiring berjalannya waktu geologi. Riset ini mengkonfirmasi hipotesis terakhir dan juga menkonfirmasi teori Continental Drift.

Convection Current (arus konveksi)

Perpecahan benua dan pergerakan lempeng dikarenakan oleh adanya daya yang menggerakkannya. Daya itu datang dari arus konveksi didalam astenosfer bumi. Arus konveksi yaitu perpindahan daya panas pada fluida, yang dikarenakan oleh:

  • Peluruhan unsur radioaktif
  • Gradien Geometris
  • Karena adanya serangan benda asing
  • Panas yang tersimpan pada saat pembentukan planet

Sea Floor Spreading

Pergerakan lempeng yang saling menjauh tertangkap oleh peneliti. Pergerakan ini menyebabkan terbentuknya punggungan yang memanjang di daerah yang menjauh. Vine, Matthews serta Morely mengumpulkan informasi-informasi penting serta menemukan kalau lempeng samudra yang baru terbentuk di antara dua lempeng yang saling menjauh.


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